Receive a weekly summary and discussion of the top papers of the week by leading researchers in the field.

General General

Multiperspective Light Field Reconstruction Method via Transfer Reinforcement Learning.

In Computational intelligence and neuroscience ; h5-index 0.0

Compared with traditional imaging, the light field contains more comprehensive image information and higher image quality. However, the available data for light field reconstruction are limited, and the repeated calculation of data seriously affects the accuracy and the real-time performance of multiperspective light field reconstruction. To solve the problems, this paper proposes a multiperspective light field reconstruction method based on transfer reinforcement learning. Firstly, the similarity measurement model is established. According to the similarity threshold of the source domain and the target domain, the reinforcement learning model or the feature transfer learning model is autonomously selected. Secondly, the reinforcement learning model is established. The model uses multiagent (i.e., multiperspective) Q-learning to learn the feature set that is most similar to the target domain and the source domain and feeds it back to the source domain. This model increases the capacity of the source-domain samples and improves the accuracy of light field reconstruction. Finally, the feature transfer learning model is established. The model uses PCA to obtain the maximum embedding space of source-domain and target-domain features and maps similar features to a new space for label data migration. This model solves the problems of multiperspective data redundancy and repeated calculations and improves the real-time performance of maneuvering target recognition. Extensive experiments on PASCAL VOC datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm against the existing algorithms.

Cai Lei, Luo Peien, Zhou Guangfu, Xu Tao, Chen Zhenxue

2020

General General

A Sparse EEG-Informed fMRI Model for Hybrid EEG-fMRI Neurofeedback Prediction.

In Frontiers in neuroscience ; h5-index 72.0

Measures of brain activity through functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) or electroencephalography (EEG), two complementary modalities, are ground solutions in the context of neurofeedback (NF) mechanisms for brain rehabilitation protocols. While NF-EEG (in which real-time neurofeedback scores are computed from EEG signals) has been explored for a very long time, NF-fMRI (in which real-time neurofeedback scores are computed from fMRI signals) appeared more recently and provides more robust results and more specific brain training. Using fMRI and EEG simultaneously for bi-modal neurofeedback sessions (NF-EEG-fMRI, in which real-time neurofeedback scores are computed from fMRI and EEG) is very promising for the design of brain rehabilitation protocols. However, fMRI is cumbersome and more exhausting for patients. The original contribution of this paper concerns the prediction of bi-modal NF scores from EEG recordings only, using a training phase where EEG signals as well as the NF-EEG and NF-fMRI scores are available. We propose a sparse regression model able to exploit EEG only to predict NF-fMRI or NF-EEG-fMRI in motor imagery tasks. We compared different NF-predictors stemming from the proposed model. We showed that predicting NF-fMRI scores from EEG signals adds information to NF-EEG scores and significantly improves the correlation with bi-modal NF sessions compared to classical NF-EEG scores.

Cury Claire, Maurel Pierre, Gribonval RĂ©mi, Barillot Christian

2019

EEG, EEG-fMRI, machine learning, neurofeedback, optimization, sparsity

General General

Closed-loop optimization of fast-charging protocols for batteries with machine learning.

In Nature ; h5-index 368.0

Simultaneously optimizing many design parameters in time-consuming experiments causes bottlenecks in a broad range of scientific and engineering disciplines1,2. One such example is process and control optimization for lithium-ion batteries during materials selection, cell manufacturing and operation. A typical objective is to maximize battery lifetime; however, conducting even a single experiment to evaluate lifetime can take months to years3-5. Furthermore, both large parameter spaces and high sampling variability3,6,7 necessitate a large number of experiments. Hence, the key challenge is to reduce both the number and the duration of the experiments required. Here we develop and demonstrate a machine learning methodology  to efficiently optimize a parameter space specifying the current and voltage profiles of six-step, ten-minute fast-charging protocols for maximizing battery cycle life, which can alleviate range anxiety for electric-vehicle users8,9. We combine two key elements to reduce the optimization cost: an early-prediction model5, which reduces the time per experiment by predicting the final cycle life using data from the first few cycles, and a Bayesian optimization algorithm10,11, which reduces the number of experiments by balancing exploration and exploitation to efficiently probe the parameter space of charging protocols. Using this methodology, we rapidly identify high-cycle-life charging protocols among 224 candidates in 16 days (compared with over 500 days using exhaustive search without early prediction), and subsequently validate the accuracy and efficiency of our optimization approach. Our closed-loop methodology automatically incorporates feedback from past experiments to inform future decisions and can be generalized to other applications in battery design and, more broadly, other scientific domains that involve time-intensive experiments and multi-dimensional design spaces.

Attia Peter M, Grover Aditya, Jin Norman, Severson Kristen A, Markov Todor M, Liao Yang-Hung, Chen Michael H, Cheong Bryan, Perkins Nicholas, Yang Zi, Herring Patrick K, Aykol Muratahan, Harris Stephen J, Braatz Richard D, Ermon Stefano, Chueh William C

2020-Feb

General General

Evaluating the significance of contact maps in low-homology protein modeling using contact-assisted threading.

In Scientific reports ; h5-index 158.0

The development of improved threading algorithms for remote homology modeling is a critical step forward in template-based protein structure prediction. We have recently demonstrated the utility of contact information to boost protein threading by developing a new contact-assisted threading method. However, the nature and extent to which the quality of a predicted contact map impacts the performance of contact-assisted threading remains elusive. Here, we systematically analyze and explore this interdependence by employing our newly-developed contact-assisted threading method over a large-scale benchmark dataset using predicted contact maps from four complementary methods including direct coupling analysis (mfDCA), sparse inverse covariance estimation (PSICOV), classical neural network-based meta approach (MetaPSICOV), and state-of-the-art ultra-deep learning model (RaptorX). Experimental results demonstrate that contact-assisted threading using high-quality contacts having the Matthews Correlation Coefficient (MCC) ≥ 0.5 improves threading performance in nearly 30% cases, while low-quality contacts with MCC <0.35 degrades the performance for 50% cases. This holds true even in CASP13 dataset, where threading using high-quality contacts (MCC ≥ 0.5) significantly improves the performance of 22 instances out of 29. Collectively, our study uncovers the mutual association between the quality of predicted contacts and its possible utility in boosting threading performance for improving low-homology protein modeling.

Bhattacharya Sutanu, Bhattacharya Debswapna

2020-Feb-19

General General

A High Throughput Approach to Reconstruct Partial-Body and Neutron Radiation Exposures on an Individual Basis.

In Scientific reports ; h5-index 158.0

Biodosimetry-based individualized reconstruction of complex irradiation scenarios (partial-body shielding and/or neutron + photon mixtures) can improve treatment decisions after mass-casualty radiation-related incidents. We used a high-throughput micronucleus assay with automated scanning and imaging software on ex-vivo irradiated human lymphocytes to: a) reconstruct partial-body and/or neutron exposure, and b) estimate separately the photon and neutron doses in a mixed exposure. The mechanistic background is that, compared with total-body photon irradiations, neutrons produce more heavily-damaged lymphocytes with multiple micronuclei/binucleated cell, whereas partial-body exposures produce fewer such lymphocytes. To utilize these differences for biodosimetry, we developed metrics that describe micronuclei distributions in binucleated cells and serve as predictors in machine learning or parametric analyses of the following scenarios: (A) Homogeneous gamma-irradiation, mimicking total-body exposures, vs. mixtures of irradiated blood with unirradiated blood, mimicking partial-body exposures. (B) X rays vs. various neutron + photon mixtures. The results showed high accuracies of scenario and dose reconstructions. Specifically, receiver operating characteristic curve areas (AUC) for sample classification by exposure type reached 0.931 and 0.916 in scenarios A and B, respectively. R2 for actual vs. reconstructed doses in these scenarios reached 0.87 and 0.77, respectively. These encouraging findings demonstrate a proof-of-principle for the proposed approach of high-throughput reconstruction of clinically-relevant complex radiation exposure scenarios.

Shuryak Igor, Turner Helen C, Perrier Jay R, Cunha Lydia, Canadell Monica Pujol, Durrani Mohammad H, Harken Andrew, Bertucci Antonella, Taveras Maria, Garty Guy, Brenner David J

2020-Feb-19

Radiology Radiology

Deep learning for screening of interstitial lung disease patterns in high-resolution CT images.

In Clinical radiology ; h5-index 0.0

AIM : To develop a screening tool for the detection of interstitial lung disease (ILD) patterns using a deep-learning method.

MATERIALS AND METHODS : A fully convolutional network was used for semantic segmentation of several ILD patterns. Improved segmentation of ILD patterns was achieved using multi-scale feature extraction. Dilated convolution was used to maintain the resolution of feature maps and to enlarge the receptive field. The proposed method was evaluated on a publicly available ILD database (MedGIFT) and a private clinical research database. Several metrics, such as success rate, sensitivity, and false positives per section were used for quantitative evaluation of the proposed method.

RESULTS : Sections with fibrosis and emphysema were detected with a similar success rate and sensitivity for both databases but the performance of detection was lower for consolidation compared to fibrosis and emphysema.

CONCLUSION : Automatic identification of ILD patterns in a high-resolution computed tomography (CT) image was implemented using a deep-learning framework. Creation of a pre-trained model with natural images and subsequent transfer learning using a particular database gives acceptable results.

Agarwala S, Kale M, Kumar D, Swaroop R, Kumar A, Kumar Dhara A, Basu Thakur S, Sadhu A, Nandi D

2020-Feb-16