Receive a weekly summary and discussion of the top papers of the week by leading researchers in the field.

General General

Explainable identification and mapping of trees using UAV RGB image and deep learning.

In Scientific reports ; h5-index 158.0

The identification and mapping of trees via remotely sensed data for application in forest management is an active area of research. Previously proposed methods using airborne and hyperspectral sensors can identify tree species with high accuracy but are costly and are thus unsuitable for small-scale forest managers. In this work, we constructed a machine vision system for tree identification and mapping using Red-Green-Blue (RGB) image taken by an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and a convolutional neural network (CNN). In this system, we first calculated the slope from the three-dimensional model obtained by the UAV, and segmented the UAV RGB photograph of the forest into several tree crown objects automatically using colour and three-dimensional information and the slope model, and lastly applied object-based CNN classification for each crown image. This system succeeded in classifying seven tree classes, including several tree species with more than 90% accuracy. The guided gradient-weighted class activation mapping (Guided Grad-CAM) showed that the CNN classified trees according to their shapes and leaf contrasts, which enhances the potential of the system for classifying individual trees with similar colours in a cost-effective manner-a useful feature for forest management.

Onishi Masanori, Ise Takeshi

2021-Jan-13

General General

Performance and application analysis of ANFIS artificial intelligence for pressure prediction of nanofluid convective flow in a heated pipe.

In Scientific reports ; h5-index 158.0

Heat transfer augmentation of the nanofluids is still an attractive concept for researchers due to rising demands for designing efficient heat transfer fluids. However, the pressure loss arisen from the suspension of nanoparticles in liquid is known as a drawback for developing such novel fluids. Therefore, prediction of the nanofluid pressure, especially in internal flows, has been focused on studies. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a commonly used approach for such a prediction of fluid flow. The CFD tools are perfect and precise in prediction of the fluid flow parameters. But they might be time-consuming and expensive, especially for complex models such as 3-dimension modeling and turbulent flow. In addition, the CFD could just predict the pressure, and it is disabled for finding the relationship of such variables. This study is intended to show the performance of the artificial intelligence (AI) algorithm as an auxiliary method for cooperation with the CFD. The turbulent flow of Cu/water nanofluid warming up in a pipe is considered as a sample of a physical phenomenon. The AI algorithm learns the CFD results. Then, the relation between the CFD results is discovered by the AI algorithm. For this purpose, the adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is adopted as AI tool. The intelligence condition of the ANFIS is checked by benchmarking the CFD results. The paper outcomes indicated that the ANFIS intelligence is met by employing gauss2mf in the model as the membership function and x, y, and z coordinates, the nanoparticle volume fraction, and the temperature as the inputs. The pressure predicted by the ANFIS at this condition is the same as that predicted by the CFD. The artificial intelligence of ANFIS could find the relation of the nanofluid pressure to the nanoparticle fraction and the temperature. The CFD simulation took much more time (90-110 min) than the total time of the learning and the prediction of the ANFIS (369 s). The CFD modeling was done on a workstation computer, while the ANFIS method was run on a normal desktop.

Babanezhad Meisam, Behroyan Iman, Nakhjiri Ali Taghvaie, Marjani Azam, Shirazian Saeed

2021-Jan-13

General General

Velocity prediction of nanofluid in a heated porous pipe: DEFIS learning of CFD results.

In Scientific reports ; h5-index 158.0

Utilizing artificial intelligence algorithm of adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) in combination with the computational lfuid dynamics (CFD) has recently revealed great potential as an auxiliary method for simulating challenging fluid mechnics problems. This research area is at the beginning, and needs sophisticated algorithms to be developed. No studies are available to consider the efficiency of the other trainers like differential evolution (DE) integrating with the FIS for capturing the pattern of the simulation results generated by CFD technique. Besides, the adjustment of the tuning parameters of the artificial intelligence (AI) algorithm for finding the highest level of intelligence is unavailable. The performance of AI algorithms in the meshing process has not been considered yet. Therfore, herein the Al2O3/water nanofluid flow in a porous pipe is simulated by a sophisticated hybrid approach combining mechnsitic model (CFD) and AI. The finite volume method (FVM) is employed as the CFD approach. Also, the differential evolution-based fuzzy inference system (DEFIS) is used for learning the CFD results. The DEFIS learns the nanofluid velocity in the y-direction, as output, and the nodes coordinates (i.e., x, y, and z), as inputs. The intelligence of the DEFIS is assessed by adjusting the methd's variables including input number, population number, and crossover. It was found that the DEFIS intelligence is related to the input number of 3, the crossover of 0.8, and the population number of 120. In addition, the nodes increment from 4833 to 774,468 was done by the DEFIS. The DEFIS predicted the velocity for the new dense mesh without using the CFD data. Finally, all CFD results were covered with the new predictions of the DEFIS.

Babanezhad Meisam, Behroyan Iman, Marjani Azam, Shirazian Saeed

2021-Jan-13

General General

Prediction of dengue outbreak in Selangor Malaysia using machine learning techniques.

In Scientific reports ; h5-index 158.0

Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne disease that affects nearly 3.9 billion people globally. Dengue remains endemic in Malaysia since its outbreak in the 1980's, with its highest concentration of cases in the state of Selangor. Predictors of dengue fever outbreaks could provide timely information for health officials to implement preventative actions. In this study, five districts in Selangor, Malaysia, that demonstrated the highest incidence of dengue fever from 2013 to 2017 were evaluated for the best machine learning model to predict Dengue outbreaks. Climate variables such as temperature, wind speed, humidity and rainfall were used in each model. Based on results, the SVM (linear kernel) exhibited the best prediction performance (Accuracy = 70%, Sensitivity = 14%, Specificity = 95%, Precision = 56%). However, the sensitivity for SVM (linear) for the testing sample increased up to 63.54% compared to 14.4% for imbalanced data (original data). The week-of-the-year was the most important predictor in the SVM model. This study exemplifies that machine learning has respectable potential for the prediction of dengue outbreaks. Future research should consider boosting, or using, nature inspired algorithms to develop a dengue prediction model.

Salim Nurul Azam Mohd, Wah Yap Bee, Reeves Caitlynn, Smith Madison, Yaacob Wan Fairos Wan, Mudin Rose Nani, Dapari Rahmat, Sapri Nik Nur Fatin Fatihah, Haque Ubydul

2021-Jan-13

General General

Delineation of the electrocardiogram with a mixed-quality-annotations dataset using convolutional neural networks.

In Scientific reports ; h5-index 158.0

Detection and delineation are key steps for retrieving and structuring information of the electrocardiogram (ECG), being thus crucial for numerous tasks in clinical practice. Digital signal processing (DSP) algorithms are often considered state-of-the-art for this purpose but require laborious rule readaptation for adapting to unseen morphologies. This work explores the adaptation of the the U-Net, a deep learning (DL) network employed for image segmentation, to electrocardiographic data. The model was trained using PhysioNet's QT database, a small dataset of 105 2-lead ambulatory recordings, while being independently tested for many architectural variations, comprising changes in the model's capacity (depth, width) and inference strategy (single- and multi-lead) in a fivefold cross-validation manner. This work features several regularization techniques to alleviate data scarcity, such as semi-supervised pre-training with low-quality data labels, performing ECG-based data augmentation and applying in-built model regularizers. The best performing configuration reached precisions of 90.12%, 99.14% and 98.25% and recalls of 98.73%, 99.94% and 99.88% for the P, QRS and T waves, respectively, on par with DSP-based approaches. Despite being a data-hungry technique trained on a small dataset, a U-Net based approach demonstrates to be a viable alternative for this task.

Jimenez-Perez Guillermo, Alcaine Alejandro, Camara Oscar

2021-Jan-13

Radiology Radiology

Artificial intelligence matches subjective severity assessment of pneumonia for prediction of patient outcome and need for mechanical ventilation: a cohort study.

In Scientific reports ; h5-index 158.0

To compare the performance of artificial intelligence (AI) and Radiographic Assessment of Lung Edema (RALE) scores from frontal chest radiographs (CXRs) for predicting patient outcomes and the need for mechanical ventilation in COVID-19 pneumonia. Our IRB-approved study included 1367 serial CXRs from 405 adult patients (mean age 65 ± 16 years) from two sites in the US (Site A) and South Korea (Site B). We recorded information pertaining to patient demographics (age, gender), smoking history, comorbid conditions (such as cancer, cardiovascular and other diseases), vital signs (temperature, oxygen saturation), and available laboratory data (such as WBC count and CRP). Two thoracic radiologists performed the qualitative assessment of all CXRs based on the RALE score for assessing the severity of lung involvement. All CXRs were processed with a commercial AI algorithm to obtain the percentage of the lung affected with findings related to COVID-19 (AI score). Independent t- and chi-square tests were used in addition to multiple logistic regression with Area Under the Curve (AUC) as output for predicting disease outcome and the need for mechanical ventilation. The RALE and AI scores had a strong positive correlation in CXRs from each site (r2 = 0.79-0.86; p < 0.0001). Patients who died or received mechanical ventilation had significantly higher RALE and AI scores than those with recovery or without the need for mechanical ventilation (p < 0.001). Patients with a more substantial difference in baseline and maximum RALE scores and AI scores had a higher prevalence of death and mechanical ventilation (p < 0.001). The addition of patients' age, gender, WBC count, and peripheral oxygen saturation increased the outcome prediction from 0.87 to 0.94 (95% CI 0.90-0.97) for RALE scores and from 0.82 to 0.91 (95% CI 0.87-0.95) for the AI scores. AI algorithm is as robust a predictor of adverse patient outcome (death or need for mechanical ventilation) as subjective RALE scores in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.

Ebrahimian Shadi, Homayounieh Fatemeh, Rockenbach Marcio A B C, Putha Preetham, Raj Tarun, Dayan Ittai, Bizzo Bernardo C, Buch Varun, Wu Dufan, Kim Kyungsang, Li Quanzheng, Digumarthy Subba R, Kalra Mannudeep K

2021-01-13