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In Cardiovascular and interventional radiology

PURPOSE : Evaluation and registration of patient and staff doses are mandatory under the current European legislation, and the occupational dose limits recommended by the ICRP have been adopted by most of the countries in the world.

METHODS : Relevant documents and guidelines published by international organisations and interventional radiology societies are referred. Any potential reduction of patient and staff doses should be compatible with the clinical outcomes of the procedures.

RESULTS : The review summarises the most common protective measures and the needed quality control for them, the criteria to select the appropriate protection devices, and how to avoid unnecessary occupational radiation exposures. Moreover, the current and future advancements in personnel radiation protection using medical simulation with virtual and augmented reality, robotics, and artificial intelligence (AI) are commented. A section on the personnel radiation protection in the era of COVID-19 is introduced, showing the expanding role of the interventional radiology during the pandemic.

CONCLUSION : The review is completed with a summary of the main factors to be considered in the selection of the appropriate radiation protection tools and practical advices to improve the protection of the staff.

Bartal Gabriel, Vano Eliseo, Paulo Graciano


Lead aprons, Musculoskeletal symptoms in interventional radiologist, Occupational radiation protection, Protective goggles, Shielding