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In International journal of hygiene and environmental health ; h5-index 50.0

An outbreak of the novel COVID-19 virus occurred during February 2020 onwards in almost all the European countries, including Spain. This study covers the correlation found between weather variables (Maximum Temperature, Minimum Temperature, Mean Temperature, Atmospheric Pressure, Daily Rainfall, Daily Sun hours) and the coronavirus propagation in Spain. A strong relationship is found when correlating the virus spread to the mean temperature, minimum temperature, and atmospheric pressure in different Spanish provinces. In this analysis we have used the ratio of the PCR COVID-19 positives with respect to the population size. A linear regression model using the mean temperature is implemented. Moreover, an analysis of variance is used to confirm the influence of mean temperature on the spread of virus. As a second measurement of the COVID-19 outbreak we have used the results of the antibodies tests carried out in Spain that provide an estimation of the heard immunity achieved. Based on this analysis, an estimation of the asymptomatic population is performed. All these results exhibit significant correlation with weather variables. The most affected provinces were Soria, Segovia and Ciudad Real, which are the coldest. On the opposite side, places such as Southern Spain, the Baleares, and Canary Islands showed a lower rate of spread. This might be related to the warmer climate and the insularity of these islands. Besides, the coastal influence and the daily sun hours might also influence the lower rates in the east and west regions in Spain. This analysis provides a deeper insight of the influence of weather variables onto the COVID-19 spread in Spain.

Loché Fernández-Ahúja José María, Fernández Martínez Juan Luis


COVID-19, Climate variables, Correlation, IgG, PCR