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General General

Personalized treatment options for chronic diseases using precision cohort analytics.

In Scientific reports ; h5-index 158.0

To support point-of-care decision making by presenting outcomes of past treatment choices for cohorts of similar patients based on observational data from electronic health records (EHRs), a machine-learning precision cohort treatment option (PCTO) workflow consisting of (1) data extraction, (2) similarity model training, (3) precision cohort identification, and (4) treatment options analysis was developed. The similarity model is used to dynamically create a cohort of similar patients, to inform clinical decisions about an individual patient. The workflow was implemented using EHR data from a large health care provider for three different highly prevalent chronic diseases: hypertension (HTN), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and hyperlipidemia (HL). A retrospective analysis demonstrated that treatment options with better outcomes were available for a majority of cases (75%, 74%, 85% for HTN, T2DM, HL, respectively). The models for HTN and T2DM were deployed in a pilot study with primary care physicians using it during clinic visits. A novel data-analytic workflow was developed to create patient-similarity models that dynamically generate personalized treatment insights at the point-of-care. By leveraging both knowledge-driven treatment guidelines and data-driven EHR data, physicians can incorporate real-world evidence in their medical decision-making process when considering treatment options for individual patients.

Ng Kenney, Kartoun Uri, Stavropoulos Harry, Zambrano John A, Tang Paul C

2021-Jan-13

General General

Development of digital biomarkers for resting tremor and bradykinesia using a wrist-worn wearable device.

In NPJ digital medicine

Objective assessment of Parkinson's disease symptoms during daily life can help improve disease management and accelerate the development of new therapies. However, many current approaches require the use of multiple devices, or performance of prescribed motor activities, which makes them ill-suited for free-living conditions. Furthermore, there is a lack of open methods that have demonstrated both criterion and discriminative validity for continuous objective assessment of motor symptoms in this population. Hence, there is a need for systems that can reduce patient burden by using a minimal sensor setup while continuously capturing clinically meaningful measures of motor symptom severity under free-living conditions. We propose a method that sequentially processes epochs of raw sensor data from a single wrist-worn accelerometer by using heuristic and machine learning models in a hierarchical framework to provide continuous monitoring of tremor and bradykinesia. Results show that sensor derived continuous measures of resting tremor and bradykinesia achieve good to strong agreement with clinical assessment of symptom severity and are able to discriminate between treatment-related changes in motor states.

Mahadevan Nikhil, Demanuele Charmaine, Zhang Hao, Volfson Dmitri, Ho Bryan, Erb Michael Kelley, Patel Shyamal

2020-Jan-15

General General

Efficient Detection of Knee Anterior Cruciate Ligament from Magnetic Resonance Imaging Using Deep Learning Approach.

In Diagnostics (Basel, Switzerland)

The most commonly injured ligament in the human body is an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). ACL injury is standard among the football, basketball and soccer players. The study aims to detect anterior cruciate ligament injury in an early stage via efficient and thorough automatic magnetic resonance imaging without involving radiologists, through a deep learning method. The proposed approach in this paper used a customized 14 layers ResNet-14 architecture of convolutional neural network (CNN) with six different directions by using class balancing and data augmentation. The performance was evaluated using accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, precision and F1 score of our customized ResNet-14 deep learning architecture with hybrid class balancing and real-time data augmentation after 5-fold cross-validation, with results of 0.920%, 0.916%, 0.946%, 0.916% and 0.923%, respectively. For our proposed ResNet-14 CNN the average area under curves (AUCs) for healthy tear, partial tear and fully ruptured tear had results of 0.980%, 0.970%, and 0.999%, respectively. The proposing diagnostic results indicated that our model could be used to detect automatically and evaluate ACL injuries in athletes using the proposed deep-learning approach.

Awan Mazhar Javed, Rahim Mohd Shafry Mohd, Salim Naomie, Mohammed Mazin Abed, Garcia-Zapirain Begonya, Abdulkareem Karrar Hameed

2021-Jan-11

MRI, anterior cruciate ligament, artificial intelligence, augmentation, classification, convolutional neural network, detection, healthcare, knee injury, residual network

General General

Fighting viruses with materials science: Prospects for antivirus surfaces, drug delivery systems and artificial intelligence.

In Dental materials : official publication of the Academy of Dental Materials

OBJECTIVE : Viruses on environmental surfaces, in saliva and other body fluids represent risk of contamination for general population and healthcare professionals. The development of vaccines and medicines is costly and time consuming. Thus, the development of novel materials and technologies to decrease viral availability, viability, infectivity, and to improve therapeutic outcomes can positively impact the prevention and treatment of viral diseases.

METHODS : Herein, we discuss (a) interaction mechanisms between viruses and materials, (b) novel strategies to develop materials with antiviral properties and oral antiviral delivery systems, and (c) the potential of artificial intelligence to design and optimize preventive measures and therapeutic regimen.

RESULTS : The mechanisms of viral adsorption on surfaces are well characterized but no major breakthrough has become clinically available. Materials with fine-tuned physical and chemical properties have the potential to compromise viral availability and stability. Emerging strategies using oral antiviral delivery systems and artificial intelligence can decrease infectivity and improve antiviral therapies.

SIGNIFICANCE : Emerging viral infections are concerning due to risk of mortality, as well as psychological and economic impacts. Materials science emerges for the development of novel materials and technologies to diminish viral availability, infectivity, and to enable enhanced preventive and therapeutic strategies, for the safety and well-being of humankind.

Rosa Vinicius, Ho Dean, Sabino-Silva Robinson, Siqueira Walter L, Silikas Nikolaos

2021-Jan-10

COVID-19, Coating, Coronavirus, Diagnostic, Infection, Nanomaterial, Nanotechnology, Pandemic, Saliva, Vaccine

Radiology Radiology

Cone-beam CT image quality improvement using Cycle-Deblur consistent adversarial networks (Cycle-Deblur GAN) for chest CT imaging in breast cancer patients.

In Scientific reports ; h5-index 158.0

Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) integrated with a linear accelerator is widely used to increase the accuracy of radiotherapy and plays an important role in image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT). For comparison with fan-beam computed tomography (FBCT), the image quality of CBCT is indistinct due to X-ray scattering, noise, and artefacts. We proposed a deep learning model, "Cycle-Deblur GAN", combined with CycleGAN and Deblur-GAN models to improve the image quality of chest CBCT images. The 8706 CBCT and FBCT image pairs were used for training, and 1150 image pairs were used for testing in deep learning. The generated CBCT images from the Cycle-Deblur GAN model demonstrated closer CT values to FBCT in the lung, breast, mediastinum, and sternum compared to the CycleGAN and RED-CNN models. The quantitative evaluations of MAE, PSNR, and SSIM for CBCT generated from the Cycle-Deblur GAN model demonstrated better results than the CycleGAN and RED-CNN models. The Cycle-Deblur GAN model improved image quality and CT-value accuracy and preserved structural details for chest CBCT images.

Tien Hui-Ju, Yang Hsin-Chih, Shueng Pei-Wei, Chen Jyh-Cheng

2021-Jan-13

Public Health Public Health

Comparison of deep learning with traditional models to predict preventable acute care use and spending among heart failure patients.

In Scientific reports ; h5-index 158.0

Recent health reforms have created incentives for cardiologists and accountable care organizations to participate in value-based care models for heart failure (HF). Accurate risk stratification of HF patients is critical to efficiently deploy interventions aimed at reducing preventable utilization. The goal of this paper was to compare deep learning approaches with traditional logistic regression (LR) to predict preventable utilization among HF patients. We conducted a prognostic study using data on 93,260 HF patients continuously enrolled for 2-years in a large U.S. commercial insurer to develop and validate prediction models for three outcomes of interest: preventable hospitalizations, preventable emergency department (ED) visits, and preventable costs. Patients were split into training, validation, and testing samples. Outcomes were modeled using traditional and enhanced LR and compared to gradient boosting model and deep learning models using sequential and non-sequential inputs. Evaluation metrics included precision (positive predictive value) at k, cost capture, and Area Under the Receiver operating characteristic (AUROC). Deep learning models consistently outperformed LR for all three outcomes with respect to the chosen evaluation metrics. Precision at 1% for preventable hospitalizations was 43% for deep learning compared to 30% for enhanced LR. Precision at 1% for preventable ED visits was 39% for deep learning compared to 33% for enhanced LR. For preventable cost, cost capture at 1% was 30% for sequential deep learning, compared to 18% for enhanced LR. The highest AUROCs for deep learning were 0.778, 0.681 and 0.727, respectively. These results offer a promising approach to identify patients for targeted interventions.

Lewis Maor, Elad Guy, Beladev Moran, Maor Gal, Radinsky Kira, Hermann Dor, Litani Yoav, Geller Tal, Pines Jesse M, Shapiro Nathan L, Figueroa Jose F

2021-Jan-13