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General General

The ideological divide in public perceptions of self-driving cars.

In Public understanding of science (Bristol, England)

Applications in artificial intelligence such as self-driving cars may profoundly transform our society, yet emerging technologies are frequently faced with suspicion or even hostility. Meanwhile, public opinions about scientific issues are increasingly polarized along the ideological line. By analyzing a nationally representative panel in the United States, we reveal an emerging ideological divide in public reactions to self-driving cars. Compared with liberals and Democrats, conservatives and Republicans express more concern about autonomous vehicles and more support for restrictively regulating autonomous vehicles. This ideological gap is largely driven by social conservatism. Moreover, both familiarity with driverless vehicles and scientific literacy reduce respondents' concerns over driverless vehicles and support for regulation policies. Still, the effects of familiarity and scientific literacy are weaker among social conservatives, indicating that people may assimilate new information in a biased manner that promotes their worldviews.

Peng Yilang

2020-May

economic and social conservatism, political ideology, risk perception, scientific literacy, self-driving cars

General General

GeoCoV19: A Dataset of Hundreds of Millions of Multilingual COVID-19 Tweets with Location Information

ArXiv Preprint

The past several years have witnessed a huge surge in the use of social media platforms during mass convergence events such as health emergencies, natural or human-induced disasters. These non-traditional data sources are becoming vital for disease forecasts and surveillance when preparing for epidemic and pandemic outbreaks. In this paper, we present GeoCoV19, a large-scale Twitter dataset containing more than 524 million multilingual tweets posted over a period of 90 days since February 1, 2020. Moreover, we employ a gazetteer-based approach to infer the geolocation of tweets. We postulate that this large-scale, multilingual, geolocated social media data can empower the research communities to evaluate how societies are collectively coping with this unprecedented global crisis as well as to develop computational methods to address challenges such as identifying fake news, understanding communities' knowledge gaps, building disease forecast and surveillance models, among others.

Umair Qazi, Muhammad Imran, Ferda Ofli

2020-05-22

General General

GeoCoV19: A Dataset of Hundreds of Millions of Multilingual COVID-19 Tweets with Location Information

ArXiv Preprint

The past several years have witnessed a huge surge in the use of social media platforms during mass convergence events such as health emergencies, natural or human-induced disasters. These non-traditional data sources are becoming vital for disease forecasts and surveillance when preparing for epidemic and pandemic outbreaks. In this paper, we present GeoCoV19, a large-scale Twitter dataset containing more than 524 million multilingual tweets posted over a period of 90 days since February 1, 2020. Moreover, we employ a gazetteer-based approach to infer the geolocation of tweets. We postulate that this large-scale, multilingual, geolocated social media data can empower the research communities to evaluate how societies are collectively coping with this unprecedented global crisis as well as to develop computational methods to address challenges such as identifying fake news, understanding communities' knowledge gaps, building disease forecast and surveillance models, among others.

Umair Qazi, Muhammad Imran, Ferda Ofli

2020-05-22

General General

Predicting treatment effects in unipolar depression: A meta-review.

In Pharmacology & therapeutics ; h5-index 80.0

There is increasing interest in clinical prediction models in psychiatry, which focus on developing multivariate algorithms to guide personalized diagnostic or management decisions. The main target of these models is the prediction of treatment response to different antidepressant therapies. This is because the ability to predict response based on patients' personal data may allow clinicians to make improved treatment decisions, and to provide more efficacious or more tolerable medications to the right patient. We searched the literature for systematic reviews about treatment prediction in the context of existing treatment modalities for adult unipolar depression, until July 2019. Treatment effect is defined broadly to include efficacy, safety, tolerability and acceptability outcomes. We first focused on the identification of individual predictor variables that might predict treatment response, and second, we considered multivariate clinical prediction models. Our meta-review included a total of 10 systematic reviews; seven (from 2014 to 2018) focusing on individual predictor variables and three focusing on clinical prediction models. These identified a number of sociodemographic, phenomenological, clinical, neuroimaging, remote monitoring, genetic and serum marker variables as possible predictor variables for treatment response, alongside statistical and machine-learning approaches to clinical prediction model development. Effect sizes for individual predictor variables were generally small and clinical prediction models had generally not been validated in external populations. There is a need for rigorous model validation in large external data-sets to prove the clinical utility of models. We also discuss potential future avenues in the field of personalized psychiatry, particularly the combination of multiple sources of data and the emerging field of artificial intelligence and digital mental health to identify new individual predictor variables.

Gillett George, Tomlinson Anneka, Efthimiou Orestis, Cipriani Andrea

2020-May-08

Antidepressant drugs, Clinical prediction model, Personalized medicine, Precision psychiatry, Prediction, Treatment response, Unipolar depression

General General

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL MEASURES: THE CASE OF ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE.

In Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews

One of the current challenges in the field of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is to identify patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) that will convert to AD. Artificial intelligence, in particular machine learning (ML), has established as one of more powerful approach to extract reliable predictors and to automatically classify different AD phenotypes. It is time to accelerate the translation of this knowledge in clinical practice, mainly by using low-cost features originating from the neuropsychological assessment. We performed a meta-analysis to assess the contribution of ML and neuropsychological measures for the automated classification of MCI patients and the prediction of their conversion to AD. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of patients' classifications was obtained by means of a quantitative bivariate random-effect meta-analytic approach. Although a high heterogeneity was observed, the results of meta-analysis show that ML applied to neuropsychological measures can lead to a successful automatic classification, being more specific as screening rather than prognosis tool. Relevant categories of neuropsychological tests can be extracted by ML that maximize the classification accuracy.

Battista Petronilla, Salvatore Christian, Berlingeri Manuela, Cerasa Antonio, Castiglioni Isabella

2020-May-08

AD, MCI, Mild Cognitive impairment, automatic classification, biomarkers, cognitive measures, machine learning, neurodegenerative diseases: dementia, neuropsychological tests

General General

Lattice Light-Sheet Microscopy Multi-dimensional Analyses (LaMDA) of T-Cell Receptor Dynamics Predict T-Cell Signaling States.

In Cell systems

Lattice light-sheet microscopy provides large amounts of high-dimensional, high-spatiotemporal resolution imaging data of cell surface receptors across the 3D surface of live cells, but user-friendly analysis pipelines are lacking. Here, we introduce lattice light-sheet microscopy multi-dimensional analyses (LaMDA), an end-to-end pipeline comprised of publicly available software packages that combines machine learning, dimensionality reduction, and diffusion maps to analyze surface receptor dynamics and classify cellular signaling states without the need for complex biochemical measurements or other prior information. We use LaMDA to analyze images of T-cell receptor (TCR) microclusters on the surface of live primary T cells under resting and stimulated conditions. We observe global spatial and temporal changes of TCRs across the 3D cell surface, accurately differentiate stimulated cells from unstimulated cells, precisely predict attenuated T-cell signaling after CD4 and CD28 receptor blockades, and reliably discriminate between structurally similar TCR ligands. All instructions needed to implement LaMDA are included in this paper.

Rosenberg Jillian, Cao Guoshuai, Borja-Prieto Fernanda, Huang Jun

2020-May-20

T cell receptor, computational biology, lattice light-sheet microscopy, machine learning