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Surgery Surgery

Artificial intelligence technology in surgery: part 1.

In ANZ journal of surgery

Artificial intelligence (AI) is one of the disruptive technologies of the fourth Industrial Revolution that is changing our work practices. This technology is in use in highly diverse industries including health care, defence, insurance and e-commerce. This review focuses on the relevance of AI to surgery. AI will aid surgeons with diagnostic decision-making, patient selection for surgery as well as improve patient pre- and post-operative care and management. Ethical considerations of AI with respect to patient rights and data privacy are highlighted. A further challenge is how best to present to national regulators a pragmatic way to assess AI as 'software as a medical device'. This relates to the ramifications for the adoption of AI technology in clinical practice, and its subsequent public funding support and reimbursement. It is evident that AI technology has important applications in surgery in the 21st century. The establishment of a key work programme in this area will be important if surgeons are to fully utilize AI in surgery.

Tan Lorwai, Tivey David, Kopunic Helena, Babidge Wendy, Langley Sally, Maddern Guy

2020-Sep-30

artificial intelligence, machine learning, surgery

Surgery Surgery

Frontiers of Robotic Gastroscopy: A Comprehensive Review of Robotic Gastroscopes and Technologies.

In Cancers

Upper gastrointestinal (UGI) tract pathology is common worldwide. With recent advancements in robotics, innovative diagnostic and treatment devices have been developed and several translational attempts made. This review paper aims to provide a highly pictorial critical review of robotic gastroscopes, so that clinicians and researchers can obtain a swift and comprehensive overview of key technologies and challenges. Therefore, the paper presents robotic gastroscopes, either commercial or at a progressed technology readiness level. Among them, we show tethered and wireless gastroscopes, as well as devices aimed for UGI surgery. The technological features of these instruments, as well as their clinical adoption and performance, are described and compared. Although the existing endoscopic devices have thus far provided substantial improvements in the effectiveness of diagnosis and treatment, there are certain aspects that represent unwavering predicaments of the current gastroenterology practice. A detailed list includes difficulties and risks, such as transmission of communicable diseases (e.g., COVID-19) due to the doctor-patient proximity, unchanged learning curves, variable detection rates, procedure-related adverse events, endoscopists' and nurses' burnouts, limited human and/or material resources, and patients' preferences to choose non-invasive options that further interfere with the successful implementation and adoption of routine screening. The combination of robotics and artificial intelligence, as well as remote telehealth endoscopy services, are also discussed, as viable solutions to improve existing platforms for diagnosis and treatment are emerging.

Marlicz Wojciech, Ren Xuyang, Robertson Alexander, Skonieczna-Żydecka Karolina, Łoniewski Igor, Dario Paolo, Wang Shuxin, Plevris John N, Koulaouzidis Anastasios, Ciuti Gastone

2020-Sep-28

artificial intelligence, gastric cancer, gastroscopy, machine learning, robotic gastroscopy

Surgery Surgery

Frontiers of Robotic Gastroscopy: A Comprehensive Review of Robotic Gastroscopes and Technologies.

In Cancers

Upper gastrointestinal (UGI) tract pathology is common worldwide. With recent advancements in robotics, innovative diagnostic and treatment devices have been developed and several translational attempts made. This review paper aims to provide a highly pictorial critical review of robotic gastroscopes, so that clinicians and researchers can obtain a swift and comprehensive overview of key technologies and challenges. Therefore, the paper presents robotic gastroscopes, either commercial or at a progressed technology readiness level. Among them, we show tethered and wireless gastroscopes, as well as devices aimed for UGI surgery. The technological features of these instruments, as well as their clinical adoption and performance, are described and compared. Although the existing endoscopic devices have thus far provided substantial improvements in the effectiveness of diagnosis and treatment, there are certain aspects that represent unwavering predicaments of the current gastroenterology practice. A detailed list includes difficulties and risks, such as transmission of communicable diseases (e.g., COVID-19) due to the doctor-patient proximity, unchanged learning curves, variable detection rates, procedure-related adverse events, endoscopists' and nurses' burnouts, limited human and/or material resources, and patients' preferences to choose non-invasive options that further interfere with the successful implementation and adoption of routine screening. The combination of robotics and artificial intelligence, as well as remote telehealth endoscopy services, are also discussed, as viable solutions to improve existing platforms for diagnosis and treatment are emerging.

Marlicz Wojciech, Ren Xuyang, Robertson Alexander, Skonieczna-Żydecka Karolina, Łoniewski Igor, Dario Paolo, Wang Shuxin, Plevris John N, Koulaouzidis Anastasios, Ciuti Gastone

2020-Sep-28

artificial intelligence, gastric cancer, gastroscopy, machine learning, robotic gastroscopy

Radiology Radiology

Tubular Shape Aware Data Generation for Semantic Segmentation in Medical Imaging

ArXiv Preprint

Chest X-ray is one of the most widespread examinations of the human body. In interventional radiology, its use is frequently associated with the need to visualize various tube-like objects, such as puncture needles, guiding sheaths, wires, and catheters. Detection and precise localization of these tube-like objects in the X-ray images is, therefore, of utmost value, catalyzing the development of accurate target-specific segmentation algorithms. Similar to the other medical imaging tasks, the manual pixel-wise annotation of the tubes is a resource-consuming process. In this work, we aim to alleviate the lack of the annotated images by using artificial data. Specifically, we present an approach for synthetic data generation of the tube-shaped objects, with a generative adversarial network being regularized with a prior-shape constraint. Our method eliminates the need for paired image--mask data and requires only a weakly-labeled dataset (10--20 images) to reach the accuracy of the fully-supervised models. We report the applicability of the approach for the task of segmenting tubes and catheters in the X-ray images, whereas the results should also hold for the other imaging modalities.

Ilyas Sirazitdinov, Heinrich Schulz, Axel Saalbach, Steffen Renisch, Dmitry V. Dylov

2020-10-02

General General

Answerable and Unanswerable Questions in Risk Analysis with Open-World Novelty.

In Risk analysis : an official publication of the Society for Risk Analysis

Decision analysis and risk analysis have grown up around a set of organizing questions: what might go wrong, how likely is it to do so, how bad might the consequences be, what should be done to maximize expected utility and minimize expected loss or regret, and how large are the remaining risks? In probabilistic causal models capable of representing unpredictable and novel events, probabilities for what will happen, and even what is possible, cannot necessarily be determined in advance. Standard decision and risk analysis questions become inherently unanswerable ("undecidable") for realistically complex causal systems with "open-world" uncertainties about what exists, what can happen, what other agents know, and how they will act. Recent artificial intelligence (AI) techniques enable agents (e.g., robots, drone swarms, and automatic controllers) to learn, plan, and act effectively despite open-world uncertainties in a host of practical applications, from robotics and autonomous vehicles to industrial engineering, transportation and logistics automation, and industrial process control. This article offers an AI/machine learning perspective on recent ideas for making decision and risk analysis (even) more useful. It reviews undecidability results and recent principles and methods for enabling intelligent agents to learn what works and how to complete useful tasks, adjust plans as needed, and achieve multiple goals safely and reasonably efficiently when possible, despite open-world uncertainties and unpredictable events. In the near future, these principles could contribute to the formulation and effective implementation of more effective plans and policies in business, regulation, and public policy, as well as in engineering, disaster management, and military and civil defense operations. They can extend traditional decision and risk analysis to deal more successfully with open-world novelty and unpredictable events in large-scale real-world planning, policymaking, and risk management.

Cox Louis Anthony

2020-Sep-30

Decision analysis, risk analysis

General General

Bidirectional long short-term memory for surgical skill classification of temporally segmented tasks.

In International journal of computer assisted radiology and surgery

PURPOSE : The majority of historical surgical skill research typically analyzes holistic summary task-level metrics to create a skill classification for a performance. Recent advances in machine learning allow time series classification at the sub-task level, allowing predictions on segments of tasks, which could improve task-level technical skill assessment.

METHODS : A bidirectional long short-term memory (LSTM) network was used with 8-s windows of multidimensional time-series data from the Basic Laparoscopic Urologic Skills dataset. The network was trained on experts and novices from four common surgical tasks. Stratified cross-validation with regularization was used to avoid overfitting. The misclassified cases were re-submitted for surgical technical skill assessment to crowds using Amazon Mechanical Turk to re-evaluate and to analyze the level of agreement with previous scores.

RESULTS : Performance was best for the suturing task, with 96.88% accuracy at predicting whether a performance was an expert or novice, with 1 misclassification, when compared to previously obtained crowd evaluations. When compared with expert surgeon ratings, the LSTM predictions resulted in a Spearman coefficient of 0.89 for suturing tasks. When crowds re-evaluated misclassified performances, it was found that for all 5 misclassified cases from peg transfer and suturing tasks, the crowds agreed more with our LSTM model than with the previously obtained crowd scores.

CONCLUSION : The technique presented shows results not incomparable with labels which would be obtained from crowd-sourced labels of surgical tasks. However, these results bring about questions of the reliability of crowd sourced labels in videos of surgical tasks. We, as a research community, should take a closer look at crowd labeling with higher scrutiny, systematically look at biases, and quantify label noise.

Kelly Jason D, Petersen Ashley, Lendvay Thomas S, Kowalewski Timothy M

2020-Sep-30

Bidirectional LSTM, Crowd sourcing, Machine learning, Surgical skill, Surgical technical skill