Receive a weekly summary and discussion of the top papers of the week by leading researchers in the field.

General General

Application of Artificial Intelligence-Based Technologies in the Healthcare Industry: Opportunities and Challenges.

In International journal of environmental research and public health ; h5-index 73.0

This study examines the current state of artificial intelligence (AI)-based technology applications and their impact on the healthcare industry. In addition to a thorough review of the literature, this study analyzed several real-world examples of AI applications in healthcare. The results indicate that major hospitals are, at present, using AI-enabled systems to augment medical staff in patient diagnosis and treatment activities for a wide range of diseases. In addition, AI systems are making an impact on improving the efficiency of nursing and managerial activities of hospitals. While AI is being embraced positively by healthcare providers, its applications provide both the utopian perspective (new opportunities) and the dystopian view (challenges to overcome). We discuss the details of those opportunities and challenges to provide a balanced view of the value of AI applications in healthcare. It is clear that rapid advances of AI and related technologies will help care providers create new value for their patients and improve the efficiency of their operational processes. Nevertheless, effective applications of AI will require effective planning and strategies to transform the entire care service and operations to reap the benefits of what technologies offer.

Lee DonHee, Yoon Seong No

2021-Jan-01

AI-based technology, healthcare industry, opportunities and challenges, policy and management support, real-world cases

General General

COVID-19: Detecting Government Pandemic Measures and Public Concerns from Twitter Arabic Data Using Distributed Machine Learning.

In International journal of environmental research and public health ; h5-index 73.0

Today's societies are connected to a level that has never been seen before. The COVID-19 pandemic has exposed the vulnerabilities of such an unprecedently connected world. As of 19 November 2020, over 56 million people have been infected with nearly 1.35 million deaths, and the numbers are growing. The state-of-the-art social media analytics for COVID-19-related studies to understand the various phenomena happening in our environment are limited and require many more studies. This paper proposes a software tool comprising a collection of unsupervised Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) machine learning and other methods for the analysis of Twitter data in Arabic with the aim to detect government pandemic measures and public concerns during the COVID-19 pandemic. The tool is described in detail, including its architecture, five software components, and algorithms. Using the tool, we collect a dataset comprising 14 million tweets from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) for the period 1 February 2020 to 1 June 2020. We detect 15 government pandemic measures and public concerns and six macro-concerns (economic sustainability, social sustainability, etc.), and formulate their information-structural, temporal, and spatio-temporal relationships. For example, we are able to detect the timewise progression of events from the public discussions on COVID-19 cases in mid-March to the first curfew on 22 March, financial loan incentives on 22 March, the increased quarantine discussions during March-April, the discussions on the reduced mobility levels from 24 March onwards, the blood donation shortfall late March onwards, the government's 9 billion SAR (Saudi Riyal) salary incentives on 3 April, lifting the ban on five daily prayers in mosques on 26 May, and finally the return to normal government measures on 29 May 2020. These findings show the effectiveness of the Twitter media in detecting important events, government measures, public concerns, and other information in both time and space with no earlier knowledge about them.

Alomari Ebtesam, Katib Iyad, Albeshri Aiiad, Mehmood Rashid

2021-01-01

Arabic language, COVID-19, Triple Bottom Line (TBL), Twitter, apache spark, big data, coronavirus, distributed computing, machine learning, smart cities, smart governance, smart healthcare, social media

oncology Oncology

Novel biomarkers and prediction model for the pathological complete response to neoadjuvant treatment of triple-negative breast cancer.

In Journal of Cancer

Objective: To develop and validate a prediction model for the pathological complete response (pCR) to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Methods: We systematically searched Gene Expression Omnibus, ArrayExpress, and PubMed for the gene expression profiles of operable TNBC accessible to NCT. Molecular heterogeneity was detected with hierarchical clustering method, and the biological profiles of differentially expressed genes were investigated by Gene Ontology, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analyses, and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA). Next, machine-learning algorithms including random-forest analysis and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) analysis were synchronously performed and, then, the intersected proportion of significant genes was undergone binary logistic regression to fulfill variables selection. The predictive response score (pRS) system was built as the product of the gene expression and coefficient obtained from the logistic analysis. Last, the cohorts were randomly divided in a 7:3 ratio into training cohort and validation cohort for the introduction of a robust model, and a nomogram was constructed with the independent predictors for pCR rate. Results: A total of 217 individuals from four cohort datasets (GSE32646, GSE25065, GSE25055, GSE21974) with complete clinicopathological information were included. Based on the microarray data, a six-gene panel (ATP4B, FBXO22, FCN2, RRP8, SMERK2, TET3) was identified. A robust nomogram, adopting pRS and clinical tumor size stage, was established and the performance was successively validated by calibration curves and receiver operating characteristic curves with the area under curve 0.704 and 0.756, respectively. Results of GSEA revealed that the biological processes including apoptosis, hypoxia, mTORC1 signaling and myogenesis, and oncogenic features of EGFR and RAF were in proactivity to attribute to an inferior response. Conclusions: This study provided a robust prediction model for pCR rate and revealed potential mechanisms of distinct response to NCT in TNBC, which were promising and warranted to further validate in the perspective.

Han Yiqun, Wang Jiayu, Xu Binghe

2021

molecular heterogeneity, neoadjuvant chemotherapy, nomogram, pathological complete response, triple-negative breast cancer

Radiology Radiology

A deep-learning-based prognostic nomogram integrating microscopic digital pathology and macroscopic magnetic resonance images in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a multi-cohort study.

In Therapeutic advances in medical oncology

Background : To explore the prognostic value of radiomics-based and digital pathology-based imaging biomarkers from macroscopic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and microscopic whole-slide images for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).

Methods : We recruited 220 NPC patients and divided them into training (n = 132), internal test (n = 44), and external test (n = 44) cohorts. The primary endpoint was failure-free survival (FFS). Radiomic features were extracted from pretreatment MRI and selected and integrated into a radiomic signature. The histopathological signature was extracted from whole-slide images of biopsy specimens using an end-to-end deep-learning method. Incorporating two signatures and independent clinical factors, a multi-scale nomogram was constructed. We also tested the correlation between the key imaging features and genetic alternations in an independent cohort of 16 patients (biological test cohort).

Results : Both radiomic and histopathologic signatures presented significant associations with treatment failure in the three cohorts (C-index: 0.689-0.779, all p < 0.050). The multi-scale nomogram showed a consistent significant improvement for predicting treatment failure compared with the clinical model in the training (C-index: 0.817 versus 0.730, p < 0.050), internal test (C-index: 0.828 versus 0.602, p < 0.050) and external test (C-index: 0.834 versus 0.679, p < 0.050) cohorts. Furthermore, patients were stratified successfully into two groups with distinguishable prognosis (log-rank p < 0.0010) using our nomogram. We also found that two texture features were related to the genetic alternations of chromatin remodeling pathways in another independent cohort.

Conclusion : The multi-scale imaging features showed a complementary value in prognostic prediction and may improve individualized treatment in NPC.

Zhang Fan, Zhong Lian-Zhen, Zhao Xun, Dong Di, Yao Ji-Jin, Wang Si-Yang, Liu Ye, Zhu Ding, Wang Yin, Wang Guo-Jie, Wang Yi-Ming, Li Dan, Wei Jiang, Tian Jie, Shan Hong

2020

digital pathology, multi-scale features, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, radiomics, survival analysis

General General

The single-monitor trial: an embedded CADe system increased adenoma detection during colonoscopy: a prospective randomized study.

In Therapeutic advances in gastroenterology

Background : Computer-aided detection (CADe) of colon polyps has been demonstrated to improve colon polyp and adenoma detection during colonoscopy by indicating the location of a given polyp on a parallel monitor. The aim of this study was to investigate whether embedding the CADe system into the primary colonoscopy monitor may serve to increase polyp and adenoma detection, without increasing physician fatigue level.

Methods : Consecutive patients presenting for colonoscopies were prospectively randomized to undergo routine colonoscopy with or without the assistance of a real-time polyp detection CADe system. Fatigue level was evaluated from score 0 to 10 by the performing endoscopists after each colonoscopy procedure. The main outcome was adenoma detection rate (ADR).

Results : Out of 790 patients analyzed, 397 were randomized to routine colonoscopy (control group), and 393 to a colonoscopy with computer-aided diagnosis (CADe group). The ADRs were 20.91% and 29.01%, respectively (OR = 1.546, 95% CI 1.116-2.141, p = 0.009). The average number of adenomas per colonoscopy (APC) was 0.29 and 0.48, respectively (Change Folds = 1.64, 95% CI 1.299-2.063, p < 0.001). The improvement in polyp detection was mainly due to increased detection of non-advanced diminutive adenomas, serrated adenoma and hyperplastic polyps. The fatigue score for each procedure was 3.28 versus 3.40 for routine and CADe group, p = 0.357.

Conclusions : A real-time CADe system employed on the primary endoscopy monitor may lead to improvements in ADR and polyp detection rate without increasing fatigue level during colonoscopy. The integration of a low-latency and high-performance CADe systems may serve as an effective quality assurance tool during colonoscopy. www.chictr.org.cn number, ChiCTR1800018058.

Liu Peixi, Wang Pu, Glissen Brown Jeremy R, Berzin Tyler M, Zhou Guanyu, Liu Weihui, Xiao Xun, Chen Ziyang, Zhang Zhihong, Zhou Chao, Lei Lei, Xiong Fei, Li Liangping, Liu Xiaogang

2020

artificial intelligence, colonoscopy, computer-aided diagnosis, polyp

Public Health Public Health

Second opinion needed: communicating uncertainty in medical machine learning.

In NPJ digital medicine

There is great excitement that medical artificial intelligence (AI) based on machine learning (ML) can be used to improve decision making at the patient level in a variety of healthcare settings. However, the quantification and communication of uncertainty for individual predictions is often neglected even though uncertainty estimates could lead to more principled decision-making and enable machine learning models to automatically or semi-automatically abstain on samples for which there is high uncertainty. In this article, we provide an overview of different approaches to uncertainty quantification and abstention for machine learning and highlight how these techniques could improve the safety and reliability of current ML systems being used in healthcare settings. Effective quantification and communication of uncertainty could help to engender trust with healthcare workers, while providing safeguards against known failure modes of current machine learning approaches. As machine learning becomes further integrated into healthcare environments, the ability to say "I'm not sure" or "I don't know" when uncertain is a necessary capability to enable safe clinical deployment.

Kompa Benjamin, Snoek Jasper, Beam Andrew L

2021-Jan-05