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General General

Early diagnosis of COVID-19-affected patients based on X-ray and computed tomography images using deep learning algorithm.

In Soft computing

The novel coronavirus infection (COVID-19) that was first identified in China in December 2019 has spread across the globe rapidly infecting over ten million people. The World Health Organization (WHO) declared it as a pandemic on March 11, 2020. What makes it even more critical is the lack of vaccines available to control the disease, although many pharmaceutical companies and research institutions all over the world are working toward developing effective solutions to battle this life-threatening disease. X-ray and computed tomography (CT) images scanning is one of the most encouraging exploration zones; it can help in finding and providing early diagnosis to diseases and gives both quick and precise outcomes. In this study, convolution neural networks method is used for binary classification pneumonia-based conversion of VGG-19, Inception_V2 and decision tree model on X-ray and CT scan images dataset, which contains 360 images. It can infer that fine-tuned version VGG-19, Inception_V2 and decision tree model show highly satisfactory performance with a rate of increase in training and validation accuracy (91%) other than Inception_V2 (78%) and decision tree (60%) models.

Dansana Debabrata, Kumar Raghvendra, Bhattacharjee Aishik, Hemanth D Jude, Gupta Deepak, Khanna Ashish, Castillo Oscar

2020-Aug-28

CNN, COVID-19, CT scan, Decision tree, Inception_V2, VGG-16, X-ray images

General General

A dataset of necrotized cassava root cross-section images.

In Data in brief

Cassava brown streak disease is a major disease affecting cassava. Along with foliar chlorosis and stem lesions, a very common symptom of cassava brown streak disease is the development of a dry, brown corky rot within the starch bearing tuberous roots, also known as necrosis. This paper presents a dataset of curated image data of necrosis bearing roots across different cassava varieties. The dataset contains images of cassava root cross-sections based on trial harvests from Uganda and Tanzania. The images were taken using a smartphone camera. The resulting dataset consists of 10,052 images making this the largest publicly available dataset for crop root necrosis. The data is comprehensive and contains different variations of necrosis expression including root cross-section types, number of necrosis lesions, presentation of the necrosis lesions. The dataset is important and can be used to train machine learning models which quantify the percentage of cassava root damage caused by necrosis.

Nakatumba-Nabende Joyce, Akera Benjamin, Tusubira Jeremy Francis, Nsumba Solomon, Mwebaze Ernest

2020-Oct

CBSD, Cassava, cassava root cross-sections, lesions, necrosis

General General

X-ModalNet: A semi-supervised deep cross-modal network for classification of remote sensing data.

In ISPRS journal of photogrammetry and remote sensing : official publication of the International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ISPRS)

This paper addresses the problem of semi-supervised transfer learning with limited cross-modality data in remote sensing. A large amount of multi-modal earth observation images, such as multispectral imagery (MSI) or synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data, are openly available on a global scale, enabling parsing global urban scenes through remote sensing imagery. However, their ability in identifying materials (pixel-wise classification) remains limited, due to the noisy collection environment and poor discriminative information as well as limited number of well-annotated training images. To this end, we propose a novel cross-modal deep-learning framework, called X-ModalNet, with three well-designed modules: self-adversarial module, interactive learning module, and label propagation module, by learning to transfer more discriminative information from a small-scale hyperspectral image (HSI) into the classification task using a large-scale MSI or SAR data. Significantly, X-ModalNet generalizes well, owing to propagating labels on an updatable graph constructed by high-level features on the top of the network, yielding semi-supervised cross-modality learning. We evaluate X-ModalNet on two multi-modal remote sensing datasets (HSI-MSI and HSI-SAR) and achieve a significant improvement in comparison with several state-of-the-art methods.

Hong Danfeng, Yokoya Naoto, Xia Gui-Song, Chanussot Jocelyn, Zhu Xiao Xiang

2020-Sep

Adversarial, Cross-modality, Deep learning, Deep neural network, Fusion, Hyperspectral, Label propagation, Multispectral, Mutual learning, Remote sensing, Semi-supervised, Synthetic aperture radar

General General

An automated data extraction and classification pipeline to identify a novel type of neuron within the dorsal striatum based on single-cell patch clamp and confocal imaging data.

In Data in brief

We employed electrophysiological and fluorescence imaging techniques to describe the characteristics of a novel type of neuron discovered in the mouse dorsal striatum. Transgenic mice that express YFP-tagged channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) in neurons driven by the promoter for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) were used and the intrinsic electrical properties of YFP-positive neurons in the dorsal striatum of these mice were characterized using whole-cell patch clamping in acute brain slices. Passive membrane properties - such as membrane capacitance, resting membrane potential and input resistance -and action potential properties- such as amplitude, kinetics and adaptation - were extracted from raw data files. Filling these neurons with neurobiotin enabled visualization of neuronal morphology via immunohistochemical labeling with streptavidin-conjugated fluorophore. Subsequent two-photon imaging allowed analyses of morphological properties such as somaticsize, dendritic branching (Sholl analysis) and density of dendritic spines. Unbiased analyses and hierarchical clustering of both morphological and functional data allowed us to identify a previously undescribed type of striatal neuron with unique properties. To facilitate identification of this new cell type, an end-to-end automated electrophysiology pipeline was developed that extracts relevant parameters and determines striatal neuron identity using neural-network based classifiers. These data and the software tool will permit other investigators to identify this novel type of neuron in their studiesand thereby better understand theroles thatthese neuronsplay in dorsal striatum circuitry.

Mao Miaomiao, Nair Aditya, Augustine George J

2020-Oct

Intrinsic electrical properties, Machine-learning aided classification, Neuron classification, Two-photon imaging, Unsupervised hierarchical clustering, Whole-cell patch clamping

General General

Predicting the Time Period of Extension of Lockdown due to Increase in Rate of COVID-19 Cases in India using Machine Learning.

In Materials today. Proceedings

The research paper proposes a methodology to predict the extension of lockdown in order to eradicate COVID-19 from India. All the concepts related to Coronavirus, its history, prevention and cure is explained in the research paper. Concept used to predict the number of active cases, deaths and recovery is Linear Regression which is an application of machine learning. Extension of lockdown is predicted on the basis of predicted number of active cases, deaths and recovery all over India. To predict the number of active cases, deaths and recovery, date wise analysis of current data was done and necessary parameters like daily recovery, daily deaths, increase rate of covid-19 cases were included. Graphical representation of each analysis and prediction was done in order to make predicted results more understandable. The combined analysis was performed at the end which included the final result of total cases of coronavirus in India. Combined analysis included the no. of cases from start of COVID-19 to the predicted end of cases all over India. [copyright information to be updated in production process].

Wadhwa Parth, Aishwarya Tripathi, Amrendra Singh, Prabhishek Diwakar, Manoj Kumar

2020-Aug-28

COVID-19, COVID-19 pandemic, Coronavirus India, Coronavirus pandemic, coronavirus, lockdown prediction

Dermatology Dermatology

Conceptualising Artificial Intelligence as a Digital Healthcare Innovation: An Introductory Review.

In Medical devices (Auckland, N.Z.)

Artificial intelligence (AI) is widely recognised as a transformative innovation and is already proving capable of outperforming human clinicians in the diagnosis of specific medical conditions, especially in image analysis within dermatology and radiology. These abilities are enhanced by the capacity of AI systems to learn from patient records, genomic information and real-time patient data. Uses of AI range from integrating with robotics to creating training material for clinicians. Whilst AI research is mounting, less attention has been paid to the practical implications on healthcare services and potential barriers to implementation. AI is recognised as a "Software as a Medical Device (SaMD)" and is increasingly becoming a topic of interest for regulators. Unless the introduction of AI is carefully considered and gradual, there are risks of automation bias, overdependence and long-term staffing problems. This is in addition to already well-documented generic risks associated with AI, such as data privacy, algorithmic biases and corrigibility. AI is able to potentiate innovations which preceded it, using Internet of Things, digitisation of patient records and genetic data as data sources. These synergies are important in both realising the potential of AI and utilising the potential of the data. As machine learning systems begin to cross-examine an array of databases, we must ensure that clinicians retain autonomy over the diagnostic process and understand the algorithmic processes generating diagnoses. This review uses established management literature to explore artificial intelligence as a digital healthcare innovation and highlight potential risks and opportunities.

Arora Anmol

2020

artificial intelligence, data, diagnostic algorithms, innovation, machine learning