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General General

The new design of cows' behavior classifier based on acceleration data and proposed feature set.

In Mathematical biosciences and engineering : MBE

Monitor and classify behavioral activities in cows is a helpful support solution for livestock based on the analysis of data from sensors attached to the animal. Accelerometers are particularly suited for monitoring cow behaviors due to small size, lightweight and high accuracy. Nevertheless, the interpretation of the data collected by such sensors when characterizing the type of behaviors still brings major challenges to developers, related to activity complexity (i.e., certain behaviors contain similar gestures). This paper presents a new design of cows' behavior classifier based on acceleration data and proposed feature set. Analysis of cow acceleration data is used to extract features for classification using machine learning algorithms. We found that with 5 features (mean, standard deviation, root mean square, median, range) and 16-second window of data (1 sample/second), classification of seven cow behaviors (including feeding, lying, standing, lying down, standing up, normal walking, active walking) achieved the overall highest performance. We validated the results with acceleration data from a public source. Performance of our proposed classifier was evaluated and compared to existing ones in terms of the sensitivity, the accuracy, the positive predictive value, and the negative predictive value.

Phi Khanh Phung Cong, Tran Duc-Tan, Duong Van Tu, Thinh Nguyen Hong, Tran Duc-Nghia

2020-Mar-11

** acceleration , classification , cow , monitoring , sensor **

General General

Learning distinctive filters for COVID-19 detection from chest X-ray using shuffled residual CNN.

In Applied soft computing

COVID-19 is a deadly viral infection that has brought a significant threat to human lives. Automatic diagnosis of COVID-19 from medical imaging enables precise medication, helps to control community outbreak, and reinforces coronavirus testing methods in place. While there exist several challenges in manually inferring traces of this viral infection from X-ray, Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) can mine data patterns that capture subtle distinctions between infected and normal X-rays. To enable automated learning of such latent features, a custom CNN architecture has been proposed in this research. It learns unique convolutional filter patterns for each kind of pneumonia. This is achieved by restricting certain filters in a convolutional layer to maximally respond only to a particular class of pneumonia/COVID-19. The CNN architecture integrates different convolution types to aid better context for learning robust features and strengthen gradient flow between layers. The proposed work also visualizes regions of saliency on the X-ray that have had the most influence on CNN's prediction outcome. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt in deep learning to learn custom filters within a single convolutional layer for identifying specific pneumonia classes. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed work has significant potential in augmenting current testing methods for COVID-19. It achieves an F1-score of 97.20% and an accuracy of 99.80% on the COVID-19 X-ray set.

Karthik R, Menaka R, M Hariharan

2020-Sep-23

CNN, COVID-19, Chest X-ray, Deep learning, Pneumonia

General General

Computational framework for real-time diagnostics and prognostics of aircraft actuation systems

ArXiv Preprint

Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) are emerging approaches to product life cycle that will maintain system safety and improve reliability, while reducing operating and maintenance costs. This is particularly relevant for aerospace systems, where high levels of integrity and high performances are required at the same time. We propose a novel strategy for the nearly real-time Fault Detection and Identification (FDI) of a dynamical assembly, and for the estimation of Remaining Useful Life (RUL) of the system. The availability of a timely estimate of the health status of the system will allow for an informed adaptive planning of maintenance and a dynamical reconfiguration of the mission profile, reducing operating costs and improving reliability. This work addresses the three phases of the prognostic flow - namely (1) signal acquisition, (2) Fault Detection and Identification, and (3) Remaining Useful Life estimation - and introduces a computationally efficient procedure suitable for real-time, on-board execution. To achieve this goal, we propose to combine information from physical models of different fidelity with machine learning techniques to obtain efficient representations (surrogate models) suitable for nearly real-time applications. Additionally, we propose an importance sampling strategy and a novel approach to model damage propagation for dynamical systems. The methodology is assessed for the FDI and RUL estimation of an aircraft electromechanical actuator (EMA) for secondary flight controls. The results show that the proposed method allows for a high precision in the evaluation of the system RUL, while outperforming common model-based techniques in terms of computational time.

Pier Carlo Berri, Matteo D. L. Dalla Vedova, Laura Mainini

2020-09-30

General General

Single-pixel imaging 12 years on: a review.

In Optics express

Modern cameras typically use an array of millions of detector pixels to capture images. By contrast, single-pixel cameras use a sequence of mask patterns to filter the scene along with the corresponding measurements of the transmitted intensity which is recorded using a single-pixel detector. This review considers the development of single-pixel cameras from the seminal work of Duarte et al. up to the present state of the art. We cover the variety of hardware configurations, design of mask patterns and the associated reconstruction algorithms, many of which relate to the field of compressed sensing and, more recently, machine learning. Overall, single-pixel cameras lend themselves to imaging at non-visible wavelengths and with precise timing or depth resolution. We discuss the suitability of single-pixel cameras for different application areas, including infrared imaging and 3D situation awareness for autonomous vehicles.

Gibson Graham M, Johnson Steven D, Padgett Miles J

2020-Sep-14

General General

Plaintext attack on joint transform correlation encryption system by convolutional neural network.

In Optics express

The image encryption system based on joint transform correlation has attracted much attention because its ciphertext does not contain complex value and can avoid strict pixel alignment of ciphertext when decryption occurs. This paper proves that the joint transform correlation architecture is vulnerable to the attack of the deep learning method-convolutional neural network. By giving the convolutional neural network a large amount of ciphertext and its corresponding plaintext, it can simulate the key of the encryption system. Unlike the traditional method which uses the phase recovery algorithm to retrieve or estimate optical encryption key, the key model trained in this paper can directly convert the ciphertext to the corresponding plaintext. Compared with the existing neural network systems, this paper uses the sigmoid activation function and adds dropout layers to make the calculation of the neural network more rapid and accurate, and the equivalent key trained by the neural network has certain robustness. Computer simulations prove the feasibility and effectiveness of this method.

Chen Linfei, Peng BoYan, Gan Wenwen, Liu Yuanqian

2020-Sep-14

General General

Quantitative phase imaging in dual-wavelength interferometry using a single wavelength illumination and deep learning.

In Optics express

In this manuscript, we propose a quantitative phase imaging method based on deep learning, using a single wavelength illumination to realize dual-wavelength phase-shifting phase recovery. By using the conditional generative adversarial network (CGAN), from one interferogram recorded at a single wavelength, we obtain interferograms at other wavelengths, the corresponding wrapped phases and then the phases at synthetic wavelengths. The feasibility of the proposed method is verified by simulation and experiments. The results demonstrate that the measurement range of single-wavelength interferometry (SWI) is improved by keeping a simple setup, avoiding the difficulty caused by using two wavelengths simultaneously. This will provide an effective solution for the problem of phase unwrapping and the measurement range limitation in phase-shifting interferometry.

Li Jiaosheng, Zhang Qinnan, Zhong Liyun, Tian Jindong, Pedrini Giancarlo, Lu Xiaoxu

2020-Sep-14