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General General

Using machine learning method to identify MYLK as a novel marker to predict biochemical recurrence in prostate cancer.

In Biomarkers in medicine

Aim: This study aims to identify novel marker to predict biochemical recurrence (BCR) in prostate cancer patients after radical prostatectomy with negative surgical margin. Materials & methods: The Cancer Genome Atlas database, Gene Expression Omnibus database and Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia database were employed. The ensemble support vector machine-recursive feature elimination method was performed to select crucial gene for BCR. Results: We identified MYLK as a novel and independent biomarker for BCR in The Cancer Genome Atlas training cohort and confirmed in four independent Gene Expression Omnibus validation cohorts. Multi-omic analysis suggested that MYLK was a DNA methylation-driven gene. Additionally, MYLK had significant positive correlations with immune infiltrations. Conclusion:MYLK was identified and validated as a novel, robust and independent biomarker for BCR in prostate cancer.

Qiao Peng, Zhang Di, Zeng Song, Wang Yicun, Wang Biao, Hu Xiaopeng

2021-Jan

biochemical recurrence, bioinformatics analysis, biomarker, prostate cancer

General General

Multi disease-prediction framework using hybrid deep learning: an optimal prediction model.

In Computer methods in biomechanics and biomedical engineering

Big data and its approaches are generally helpful for healthcare and biomedical sectors for predicting the disease. For trivial symptoms, the difficulty is to meet the doctors at any time in the hospital. Thus, big data provides essential data regarding the diseases on the basis of the patient's symptoms. For several medical organizations, disease prediction is important for making the best feasible health care decisions. Conversely, the conventional medical care model offers input as structured that requires more accurate and consistent prediction. This paper is planned to develop the multi-disease prediction using the improvised deep learning concept. Here, the different datasets pertain to "Diabetes, Hepatitis, lung cancer, liver tumor, heart disease, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease", from the benchmark UCI repository is gathered for conducting the experiment. The proposed model involves three phases (a) Data normalization (b) Weighted normalized feature extraction, and (c) prediction. Initially, the dataset is normalized in order to make the attribute's range at a certain level. Further, weighted feature extraction is performed, in which a weight function is multiplied with each attribute value for making large scale deviation. Here, the weight function is optimized using the combination of two meta-heuristic algorithms termed as Jaya Algorithm-based Multi-Verse Optimization algorithm (JA-MVO). The optimally extracted features are subjected to the hybrid deep learning algorithms like "Deep Belief Network (DBN) and Recurrent Neural Network (RNN)". As a modification to hybrid deep learning architecture, the weight of both DBN and RNN is optimized using the same hybrid optimization algorithm. Further, the comparative evaluation of the proposed prediction over the existing models certifies its effectiveness through various performance measures.

Ampavathi Anusha, Saradhi T Vijaya

2021-Jan-11

Big Data, Jaya algorithm, Jaya algorithm-based multi-verse optimization algorithm, UCI repository, data normalization, deep belief network, healthcare sector, multi-verse optimization, recurrent neural network

Public Health Public Health

Identifying knowledge gaps in heart failure research among women using unsupervised machine-learning methods.

In Future cardiology

Aim: To identify knowledge gaps in heart failure (HF) research among women, especially postmenopausal women. Materials & methods: We retrieved HF articles from PubMed. Natural language processing and text mining techniques were used to screen relevant articles and identify study objective(s) from abstracts. After text preprocessing, we performed topic modeling with non-negative matrix factorization to cluster articles based on the primary topic. Clusters were independently validated and labeled by three investigators familiar with HF research. Results: Our model yielded 15 topic clusters from articles on HF among women. Atrial fibrillation was found to be the most understudied topic. From articles specific to postmenopausal women, five clusters were identified. The smallest cluster was about stress-induced cardiomyopathy. Conclusion: Topic modeling can help identify understudied areas in medical research.

Alhussain Khalid, Kido Kazuhiko, Dwibedi Nilanjana, LeMasters Traci, Rose Danielle E, Misra Ranjita, Sambamoorthi Usha

2021-Jan-11

heart failure research, postmenopausal women, topic modeling, unsupervised learning, women

Radiology Radiology

Investigating the feasibility of generating dual-energy CT from one 120-kVp CT scan: a phantom study.

In Journal of applied clinical medical physics ; h5-index 28.0

INTRODUCTION : This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of generating pseudo dual-energy CT (DECT) from one 120-kVp CT by using convolutional neural network (CNN) to derive additional information for quantitative image analysis through phantom study.

METHODS : Dual-energy scans (80/140 kVp) and single-energy scans (120 kVp) were performed for five calibration phantoms and two evaluation phantoms on a dual-source DECT scanner. The calibration phantoms were used to generate training dataset for CNN optimization, while the evaluation phantoms were used to generate testing dataset. A CNN model which takes 120-kVp images as input and creates 80/140-kVp images as output was built, trained, and tested by using Caffe CNN platform. An in-house software to quantify contrast enhancement and synthesize virtual monochromatic CT (VMCT) for CNN-generated pseudo DECT was implemented and evaluated.

RESULTS : The CT numbers in 80-kVp pseudo images generated by CNN are differed from the truth by 11.57, 16.67, 13.92, 12.23, 10.69 HU for syringes filled with iodine concentration of 2.19, 4.38, 8.75, 17.5, 35 mg/ml, respectively. The corresponding results for 140-kVp CT are 3.09, 9.10, 7.08, 9.81, 7.59 HU. The estimates of iodine concentration calculated based on the proposed method are differed from the truth by 0.104, 0.603, 0.478, 0.698, 0.795 mg/ml for syringes filled with iodine concentration of 2.19, 4.38, 8.75, 17.5, 35 mg/ml, respectively. With regards to image quality enhancement, VMCT synthesized by using pseudo DECT shows the best contrast-to-noise ratio at 40 keV.

CONCLUSION : In conclusion, the proposed method should be a practicable strategy for iodine quantification in contrast enhanced 120-kVp CT without using specific scanner or scanning procedure.

Huang Wen-Hui, Jhan Kai-Jie, Yang Ching-Ching

2020-Oct-14

deep learning, dual energy CT, pseudo CT

General General

Contemporary training methods in regional anaesthesia: fundamentals and innovations.

In Anaesthesia ; h5-index 53.0

Over the past two decades, regional anaesthesia and medical education as a whole have undergone a renaissance. Significant changes in our teaching methods and clinical practice have been influenced by improvements in our theoretical understanding as well as by technological innovations. More recently, there has been a focus on using foundational education principles to teach regional anaesthesia, and the evidence on how to best teach and assess trainees is growing. This narrative review will discuss fundamentals and innovations in regional anaesthesia training. We present the fundamentals in regional anaesthesia training, specifically the current state of simulation-based education, deliberate practice and curriculum design based on competency-based progression. Moving into the future, we present the latest innovations in web-based learning, emerging technologies for teaching and assessment and new developments in alternate reality learning systems.

Ramlogan R R, Chuan A, Mariano E R

2021-01

artificial intelligence, competency-based training, medical education, regional anaesthesia, simulation, technology

General General

Automatic Lung Health Screening Using Respiratory Sounds.

In Journal of medical systems ; h5-index 48.0

Significant changes have been made on audio-based technologies over years in several different fields. Healthcare is no exception. One of such avenues is health screening based on respiratory sounds. In this paper, we developed a tool to detect respiratory sounds that come from respiratory infection carrying patients. Linear Predictive Cepstral Coefficient (LPCC)-based features were used to characterize such audio clips. With Multilayer Perceptron (MLP)-based classifier, in our experiment, we achieved the highest possible accuracy of 99.22% that was tested on a publicly available respiratory sounds dataset (ICBHI17) (Rocha et al. Physiol. Meas. 40(3):035,001 20) of size 6800+ clips. In addition to other popular machine learning classifiers, our results outperformed common works that exist in the literature.

Mukherjee Himadri, Sreerama Priyanka, Dhar Ankita, Obaidullah Sk Md, Roy Kaushik, Mahmud Mufti, Santosh K C

2021-Jan-11

Healthcare, Lung health, Respiratory infection, Respiratory sound