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In PloS one ; h5-index 176.0

While domain-specific data augmentation can be useful in training neural networks for medical imaging tasks, such techniques have not been widely used to date. Our objective was to test whether domain-specific data augmentation is useful for medical imaging using a well-benchmarked task: view classification on fetal ultrasound FETAL-125 and OB-125 datasets. We found that using a context-preserving cut-paste strategy, we could create valid training data as measured by performance of the resulting trained model on the benchmark test dataset. When used in an online fashion, models trained on this hybrid data performed similarly to those trained using traditional data augmentation (FETAL-125 F-score 85.33 ± 0.24 vs 86.89 ± 0.60, p-value 0.014; OB-125 F-score 74.60 ± 0.11 vs 72.43 ± 0.62, p-value 0.004). Furthermore, the ability to perform augmentations during training time, as well as the ability to apply chosen augmentations equally across data classes, are important considerations in designing a bespoke data augmentation. Finally, we provide open-source code to facilitate running bespoke data augmentations in an online fashion. Taken together, this work expands the ability to design and apply domain-guided data augmentations for medical imaging tasks.

Athalye Chinmayee, Arnaout Rima