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In Science (New York, N.Y.)

Cellular microstructures form naturally in many living organisms (e.g., flowers and leaves) to provide vital functions in synthesis, transport of nutrients, and regulation of growth. Although heterogeneous cellular microstructures are believed to play pivotal roles in their three-dimensional (3D) shape formation, programming 3D curved mesosurfaces with cellular designs remains elusive in man-made systems. We report a rational microlattice design that allows transformation of 2D films into programmable 3D curved mesosurfaces through mechanically guided assembly. Analytical modeling and a machine learning-based computational approach serve as the basis for shape programming and determine the heterogeneous 2D microlattice patterns required for target 3D curved surfaces. About 30 geometries are presented, including both regular and biological mesosurfaces. Demonstrations include a conformable cardiac electronic device, a stingray-like dual mode actuator, and a 3D electronic cell scaffold.

Cheng Xu, Fan Zhichao, Yao Shenglian, Jin Tianqi, Lv Zengyao, Lan Yu, Bo Renheng, Chen Yitong, Zhang Fan, Shen Zhangming, Wan Huanhuan, Huang Yonggang, Zhang Yihui