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In Heliyon

The use of renewable energy is necessary to achieve the goals of sustainable development, and sooner or later all countries are forced to plan and make policies for the use of this equipment. Considering the growing trend of smart systems and the ability of these systems to control and use renewable resources, it is necessary to investigate how to control and optimally use these resources in smart systems. Considering the geographical conditions and significant solar energy radiation in Iran, the most suitable option for using renewable energy in residential buildings is solar energy. Among the types of solar energy used around the world, photovoltaic panels are used more due to their wide range, being cheaper than other sources of electric power from solar energy and more durable than other sources. In order to reduce widespread losses and reduce the cost of transmission and distribution, increase efficiency, the possibility of the presence of private sector investors and increase the security and stability of the power grid, distributed production of electrical energy at consumption locations using small-scale units is the most cost-effective way to use home solar panels. Also, the production of energy from wind turbines can be done in the areas where anemometer data determine it to be suitable. The combination of solar energy and wind energy can effectively reduce the need for batteries, but studies show that this combination is only economically viable when it is used on a large scale and with high powers, which requires a lot of investment. Large initial capital is one of the biggest problems of distributed production systems, so the use of artificial intelligence methods for accurate capacity determination of renewable energy production systems becomes doubly important. The economic results show that the least cost of electricity and net price cost are 0.44 $ per kWh and 15.0 million $ respectively, when the converter size was gradually changed, with a renewable fraction of 46.7%.

Vahabi Khah Mohammad, Zahedi Rahim, Eskandarpanah Reza, Mirzaei Amir Mohammad, Farahani Omid Noudeh, Malek Iman, Rezaei Nima


PV battery System, Renewable energy, Sizing, Solar energy