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In European journal of radiology open

Early detection and diagnosis of brain tumors are crucial to taking adequate preventive measures, as with most cancers. On the other hand, artificial intelligence (AI) has grown exponentially, even in such complex environments as medicine. Here it's proposed a framework to explore state-of-the-art deep learning architectures for brain tumor classification and detection. An own development called Cross-Transformer is also included, which consists of three scalar products that combine self-care model keys, queries, and values. Initially, we focused on the classification of three types of tumors: glioma, meningioma, and pituitary. With the Figshare brain tumor dataset was trained the InceptionResNetV2, InceptionV3, DenseNet121, Xception, ResNet50V2, VGG19, and EfficientNetB7 networks. Over 97 % of classifications were accurate in this experiment, which provided a network's performance overview. Subsequently, we focused on tumor detection using the Brain MRI Images for Brain Tumor Detection and The Cancer Genome Atlas Low-Grade Glioma database. The development encompasses learning transfer, data augmentation, as well as image acquisition sequences; T1-weighted images (T1WI), T1-weighted post-gadolinium (T1-Gd), and Fluid-Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR). Based on the results, using learning transfer and data augmentation increased accuracy by up to 6 %, with a p-value below the significance level of 0.05. As well, the FLAIR sequence was the most efficient for detection. As an alternative, our proposed model proved to be the most effective in terms of training time, using approximately half the time of the second fastest network.

Anaya-Isaza Andrés, Mera-Jiménez Leonel, Verdugo-Alejo Lucía, Sarasti Luis


Artificial intelligence, Cancer detection, Machine learning, Magnetic resonance imaging, Transformers, Tumors