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In Molecular biology and evolution

Gene flow between previously isolated populations during the founding of an admixed or hybrid population has the potential to introduce adaptive alleles into the new population. If the adaptive allele is common in one source population, but not the other, then as the adaptive allele rises in frequency in the admixed population, genetic ancestry from the source containing the adaptive allele will increase nearby as well. Patterns of genetic ancestry have therefore been used to identify post-admixture positive selection in humans and other animals, including examples in immunity, metabolism, and animal coloration. A common method identifies regions of the genome that have local ancestry 'outliers' compared to the distribution across the rest of the genome, considering each locus independently. However, we lack theoretical models for expected distributions of ancestry under various demographic scenarios, resulting in potential false positives and false negatives. Further, ancestry patterns between distant sites are often not independent. As a result, current methods tend to infer wide genomic regions containing many genes as under selection, limiting biological interpretation. Instead, we develop a deep learning object detection method applied to images generated from local ancestry-painted genomes. This approach preserves information from the surrounding genomic context and avoids potential pitfalls of user-defined summary statistics. We find the-method is robust to a variety of demographic misspecifications using simulated data. Applied to human genotype data from Cabo Verde, we localize a known adaptive locus to a single narrow region compared to multiple or long windows obtained using two other ancestry-based methods.

Hamid Iman, Korunes Katharine L, Schrider Daniel R, Goldberg Amy