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In JMIR medical education

BACKGROUND : The use of artificial intelligence in medicine is expected to increase significantly in the upcoming years. Advancements in AI technology have the potential to revolutionize healthcare, from aiding in the diagnosis of certain diseases to helping with treatment decisions. Current literature suggests the integration of the subject of AI in medicine as part of the medical curriculum to prepare medical students for the opportunities and challenges related to the use of the technology within the clinical context.

OBJECTIVE : The purpose of this study was to explore the relevant knowledge and understanding of the subject of AI in medicine, and to specify curricula teaching content within medical education.

METHODS : For this research, we conducted 12 guideline-based expert interviews. Experts were defined as individuals who have been engaged in full-time academic research, development, and/or teaching in the field of artificial intelligence in medicine for at least five years. As part of the data analysis, we recorded, transcribed, and analyzed the interviews using qualitative content analysis. We used the software QCAmap and inductive category formation to analyze the data.

RESULTS : The qualitative content analysis led to the formation of three main categories ("Knowledge," "Interpretation," and "Application") with a total of nine associated subcategories. The experts interviewed cited knowledge and an understanding of the fundamentals of AI, statistics, ethics, and privacy and regulation as necessary basic knowledge that should be part of medical education. The analysis also showed that medical students need to be able to interpret as well as critically reflect on the results provided by AI, taking into account the associated risks and data basis. To enable the application of AI in medicine, medical education should promote the acquisition of practical skills, including the need for basic technological skills, as well as the development of confidence in the technology and one's related competencies.

CONCLUSIONS : The analyzed expert interviews' results suggest that medical curricula should include the topic of AI in medicine to develop the knowledge, understanding, and confidence needed to use AI in the clinical context. The results further imply an imminent need for standardization of the definition of AI as the foundation to identify, define, and teach respective content on AI within medical curricula.

Weidener Lukas, Fischer Michael