Receive a weekly summary and discussion of the top papers of the week by leading researchers in the field.

In Journal of hematology & oncology ; h5-index 60.0

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a deadly hematological malignancy. Cellular morphology detection of bone marrow smears based on the French-American-British (FAB) classification system remains an essential criterion in the diagnosis of hematological malignancies. However, the diagnosis and discrimination of distinct FAB subtypes of AML obtained from bone marrow smear images are tedious and time-consuming. In addition, there is considerable variation within and among pathologists, particularly in rural areas, where pathologists may not have relevant expertise. Here, we established a comprehensive database encompassing 8245 bone marrow smear images from 651 patients based on a retrospective dual-center study between 2010 and 2021 for the purpose of training and testing. Furthermore, we developed AMLnet, a deep-learning pipeline based on bone marrow smear images, that can discriminate not only between AML patients and healthy individuals but also accurately identify various AML subtypes. AMLnet achieved an AUC of 0.885 at the image level and 0.921 at the patient level in distinguishing nine AML subtypes on the test dataset. Furthermore, AMLnet outperformed junior human experts and was comparable to senior experts on the test dataset at the patient level. Finally, we provided an interactive demo website to visualize the saliency maps and the results of AMLnet for aiding pathologists' diagnosis. Collectively, AMLnet has the potential to serve as a fast prescreening and decision support tool for cytomorphological pathologists, especially in areas where pathologists are overburdened by medical demands as well as in rural areas where medical resources are scarce.

Yu Zebin, Li Jianhu, Wen Xiang, Han Yingli, Jiang Penglei, Zhu Meng, Wang Minmin, Gao Xiangli, Shen Dan, Zhang Ting, Zhao Shuqi, Zhu Yijing, Tong Jixiang, Yuan Shuchong, Zhu HongHu, Huang He, Qian Pengxu


Acute myeloid leukemia, Bone marrow smears, Deep learning, Diagnosis