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In Scientific reports ; h5-index 158.0

The efficient detection of grapes is a crucial technology for fruit-picking robots. To better identify grapes from branch shading that is similar to the fruit color and improve the detection accuracy of green grapes due to cluster adhesion, this study proposes a Shine-Muscat Grape Detection Model (S-MGDM) based on improved YOLOv3 for the ripening stage. DenseNet is fused in the backbone feature extraction network to extract richer underlying grape information; depth-separable convolution, CBAM, and SPPNet are added in the multi-scale detection module to increase the perceptual field of grape targets and reduce the model computation; meanwhile, PANet is combined with FPN to promote inter-network information flow and iteratively extract grape features. In addition, the CIOU regression loss function is used and the prior frame size is modified by the k-means algorithm to improve the accuracy of detection. The improved detection model achieves an AP value of 96.73% and an F1 value of 91% on the test set, which are 3.87% and 3% higher than the original network model, respectively; the average detection speed under GPU reaches 26.95 frames/s, which is 6.49 frames/s higher than the original model. The comparison results with several mainstream detection algorithms such as SSD and YOLO series show that the method has excellent detection accuracy and good real-time performance, which is an important reference value for the problem of accurate identification of Shine-Muscat grapes at maturity.

Wei Xinjie, Xie Fuxiang, Wang Kai, Song Jian, Bai Yang