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In Protein & cell

Although the development of COVID-19 vaccines has been a remarkable success, the heterogeneous individual antibody generation and decline over time are unknown and still hard to predict. In this study, blood samples were collected from 163 participants who next received two doses of an inactivated COVID-19 vaccine (CoronaVac®) at a 28-day interval. Using TMT-based proteomics, we identified 1,715 serum and 7,342 peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) proteins. We proposed two sets of potential biomarkers (seven from serum, five from PBMCs) at baseline using machine learning, and predicted the individual seropositivity 57 days after vaccination (AUC = 0.87). Based on the four PBMC's potential biomarkers, we predicted the antibody persistence until 180 days after vaccination (AUC = 0.79). Our data highlighted characteristic hematological host responses, including altered lymphocyte migration regulation, neutrophil degranulation, and humoral immune response. This study proposed potential blood-derived protein biomarkers before vaccination for predicting heterogeneous antibody generation and decline after COVID-19 vaccination, shedding light on immunization mechanisms and individual booster shot planning.

Wang Yingrui, Zhu Qianru, Sun Rui, Yi Xiao, Huang Lingling, Hu Yifan, Ge Weigang, Gao Huanhuan, Ye Xinfu, Song Yu, Shao Li, Li Yantao, Li Jie, Guo Tiannan, Shi Junping


COVID-19, machine learning, neutralizing antibodies (NAbs), proteomics, vaccination