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In American journal of infection control ; h5-index 43.0

Infection prevention and control (IPC) is essential to prevent nosocomial infections. The implementation of automation technologies can aid outbreak response. This manuscript aims at investigating the current use and role of robots and smart environments on IPC systems in nosocomial settings. The systematic literature review was performed following the PRISMA statement. Literature was searched for articles published in the period January 2016 to October 2022. Two authors determined the eligibility of the papers, with conflicting decisions being mitigated by a third. Relevant data was then extracted using an ad-hoc extraction table to facilitate the analysis and narrative synthesis. The quality of the included studies was appraised by two authors. The search strategy returned 1520 citations and 17 papers were included in this review. This review identified three main areas of interest: hand hygiene and personal protective equipment compliance, automatic infection cluster detection and environments cleaning (i.e., air quality control, sterilization). This review demonstrates that IPC practices within hospitals mostly do not rely on automation and robotic technology, and few advancements have been made in this field. Increasing the awareness of health care workers on these technologies, through training and involving them in the design process, is essential to accomplish the Health 4.0 transformation. Research priorities should also be considering how to implement similar or more contextualized alternatives for low-income countries.

Piaggio Davide, Zarro Marianna, Pagliara Silvio, Andellini Martina, Almuhini Abdulaziz, Maccaro Alessia, Pecchia Leandro


Infection prevention and control, artificial intelligence, hand hygiene, health 4.0, internet of things, robot