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ArXiv Preprint

The use of AI in healthcare is designed to improve care delivery and augment the decisions of providers to enhance patient outcomes. When deployed in clinical settings, the interaction between providers and AI is a critical component for measuring and understanding the effectiveness of these digital tools on broader health outcomes. Even in cases where AI algorithms have high diagnostic accuracy, healthcare providers often still rely on their experience and sometimes gut feeling to make a final decision. Other times, providers rely unquestioningly on the outputs of the AI models, which leads to a concern about over-reliance on the technology. The purpose of this research was to understand how reliant drug shop dispensers were on AI-powered technologies when determining a differential diagnosis for a presented clinical case vignette. We explored how the drug dispensers responded to technology that is framed as always correct in an attempt to measure whether they begin to rely on it without any critical thought of their own. We found that dispensers relied on the decision made by the AI 25 percent of the time, even when the AI provided no explanation for its decision.

Ally Jr Salim, Megan Allen, Kelvin Mariki, Kevin James Masoy, Jafary Liana