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In SN computer science

Grayscale statistical attributes analysed for 513 extract images taken from pulmonary computed tomography (CT) scan slices of 57 individuals (49 confirmed COVID-19 positive; eight confirmed COVID-19 negative) are able to accurately predict a visual score (VS from 0 to 4) used by a clinician to assess the severity of lung abnormalities in the patients. Some of these attributes can be used graphically to distinguish useful but overlapping distributions for the VS classes. Using machine and deep learning (ML/DL) algorithms with twelve grayscale image attributes as inputs enables the VS classes to be accurately distinguished. A convolutional neural network achieves this with better than 96% accuracy (only 18 images misclassified out of 513) on a supervised learning basis. Analysis of confusion matrices enables the VS prediction performance of ML/DL algorithms to be explored in detail. Those matrices demonstrate that the best performing ML/DL algorithms successfully distinguish between VS classes 0 and 1, which clinicians cannot readily do with the naked eye. Just five image grayscale attributes can also be used to generate an algorithmically defined scoring system (AS) that can also graphically distinguish the degree of pulmonary impacts in the dataset evaluated. The AS classification illustrated involves less overlap between its classes than the VS system and could be exploited as an automated expert system. The best-performing ML/DL models are able to predict the AS classes with better than 99% accuracy using twelve grayscale attributes as inputs. The decision tree and random forest algorithms accomplish that distinction with just one classification error in the 513 images tested.

Ghashghaei Sara, Wood David A, Sadatshojaei Erfan, Jalilpoor Mansooreh


COVID-19 lung abnormalities, Computed tomography (CT) scan analysis, Confusion matrices, Grayscale image attributes, Machine and deep learning predictions, Visual and algorithmic classifications