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In Journal of medical physics

PURPOSE : Many artificial intelligence-based computational procedures are developed to diagnose COVID-19 infection from chest X-ray (CXR) images, as diagnosis by CXR imaging is less time consuming and economically cheap compared to other detection procedures. Due to unavailability of skilled computer professionals and high computer architectural resource, majority of the employed methods are difficult to implement in rural and poor economic settings. Majority of such reports are devoid of codes and ignores related diseases (pneumonia). The absence of codes makes limitation in applying them widely. Hence, validation testing followed by evidence-based medical practice is difficult. The present work was aimed to develop a simple method that requires a less computational expertise and minimal level of computer resource, but with statistical inference.

MATERIALS AND METHODS : A Fast Fourier Transform-based (FFT) method was developed with GNU Octave, a free and open-source platform. This was employed to the images of CXR for further analysis. For statistical inference, two variables, i.e., the highest peak and number of peaks in the FFT distribution plot were considered.

RESULTS : The comparison of mean values among different groups (normal, COVID-19, viral, and bacterial pneumonia [BP]) showed statistical significance, especially when compared to normal, except between viral and BP groups.

CONCLUSION : Parametric statistical inference from our result showed high level of significance (P < 0.001). This is comparable to the available artificial intelligence-based methods (where accuracy is about 94%). Developed method is easy, availability with codes, and requires a minimal level of computer resource and can be tested with a small sample size in different demography, and hence, be implemented in a poor socioeconomic setting.

Majumder Durjoy


COVID-19, Chest X-ray image, Fourier analysis, image analysis, pneumonia