In Chemometrics and intelligent laboratory systems : an international journal sponsored by the Chemometrics Society
Deep learning (DL) algorithms have demonstrated a high ability to perform speedy and accurate COVID-19 diagnosis utilizing computed tomography (CT) and X-Ray scans. The spatial information in these images was used to train DL models in the majority of relevant studies. However, training these models with images generated by radiomics approaches could enhance diagnostic accuracy. Furthermore, combining information from several radiomics approaches with time-frequency representations of the COVID-19 patterns can increase performance even further. This study introduces "RADIC", an automated tool that uses three DL models that are trained using radiomics-generated images to detect COVID-19. First, four radiomics approaches are used to analyze the original CT and X-ray images. Next, each of the three DL models is trained on a different set of radiomics, X-ray, and CT images. Then, for each DL model, deep features are obtained, and their dimensions are decreased using the Fast Walsh Hadamard Transform, yielding a time-frequency representation of the COVID-19 patterns. The tool then uses the discrete cosine transform to combine these deep features. Four classification models are then used to achieve classification. In order to validate the performance of RADIC, two benchmark datasets (CT and X-Ray) for COVID-19 are employed. The final accuracy attained using RADIC is 99.4% and 99% for the first and second datasets respectively. To prove the competing ability of RADIC, its performance is compared with related studies in the literature. The results reflect that RADIC achieve superior performance compared to other studies. The results of the proposed tool prove that a DL model can be trained more effectively with images generated by radiomics techniques than the original X-Ray and CT images. Besides, the incorporation of deep features extracted from DL models trained with multiple radiomics approaches will improve diagnostic accuracy.
COVID-19, Convolution neural networks (CNN), Deep learning, Discrete wavelet transform, Dual-tree complex wavelet transform, Texture analysis