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In Tropical medicine and infectious disease

While the world is still struggling to recover from the harm caused by the widespread COVID-19 pandemic, the monkeypox virus now poses a new threat of becoming a pandemic. Although it is not as dangerous or infectious as COVID-19, new cases of the disease are nevertheless being reported daily from many countries. In this study, we have used public datasets provided by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control for developing a prediction model for the spread of the monkeypox outbreak to and throughout the USA, Germany, the UK, France and Canada. We have used certain effective neural network models for this purpose. The novelty of this study is that a neural network model for a time series monkeypox dataset is developed and compared with LSTM and GRU models using an adaptive moment estimation (ADAM) optimizer. The Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) learning technique is used to develop and validate a single hidden layer artificial neural network (ANN) model. Different ANN model architectures with varying numbers of hidden layer neurons were trained, and the K-fold cross-validation early stopping validation approach was employed to identify the optimum structure with the best generalization potential. In the regression analysis, our ANN model gives a good R-value of almost 99%, the LSTM model gives almost 98% and the GRU model gives almost 98%. These three model fits demonstrated that there was a good agreement between the experimental data and the forecasted values. The results of our experiments show that the ANN model performs better than the other methods on the collected monkeypox dataset in all five countries. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report that has used ANN, LSTM and GRU to predict a monkeypox outbreak in all five countries.

Manohar Balakrishnama, Das Raja


COVID-19, Hessian matrix, K-fold cross-validation, Levenberg–Marquardt model, machine learning, regression analysis, sigmoid function