In The FEBS journal
Protein conformational changes with fluctuations are fundamental aspects of protein-protein interactions (PPIs); understanding these motions is required for the rational design of PPI-regulating compounds. Src homology 2 (SH2) domains are commonly found in adapter proteins involved in signal transduction and specifically bind to consensus motifs of proteins containing phosphorylated tyrosine (pY). Here, we analyzed the interaction between the N-terminal SH2 domain (nSH2) of the regulatory subunit in phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and the cytoplasmic region of the T-cell co-receptor, CD28, using NMR and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. First, we assigned the backbone signals of nSH2 on 1 H-15 N heteronuclear single quantum coherence spectra in the absence or presence of the CD28 phosphopeptide, SDpYMNMTPRRPG. Chemical shift perturbation experiments revealed allosteric changes at the BC loop and the C-terminal region of nSH2 upon CD28 binding. NMR relaxation experiments showed a conformational exchange associated with CD28 binding in these regions. The conformational stabilization of the C-terminal region correlated with the regulation of PI3K catalytic function. Further, using 19 F- and 31 P-labeled CD28 phosphopeptide, we analyzed the structural dynamics of CD28 and demonstrated that the aromatic ring of the pY residue fluctuated between multiple conformations upon nSH2 binding. Our MD simulations largely explained the NMR results and the structural dynamics of nSH2 and CD28 in both bound and unbound states. Notably, in addition to its major conformation, we detected a minor conformation of nSH2 in the CD28 bound state that may explain the allosteric conformational change in the BC loop.
Hosoe Yuhi, Miyanoiri Yohei, Re Suyong, Ochi Saki, Asahina Yuya, Kawakami Toru, Kuroda Masataka, Mizuguchi Kenji, Oda Masayuki
NMR, T-cell activation, conformational change, molecular dynamics, protein-protein interaction