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In Medicine

BACKGROUND : To analyze the diagnosis performance of deep learning model used in corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) computer tomography(CT) chest scans. The included sample contains healthy people, confirmed COVID-19 patients and unconfirmed suspected patients with corresponding symptoms.

METHODS : PubMed, Web of Science, Wiley, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, WAN FANG DATA, and Cochrane Library were searched for articles. Three researchers independently screened the literature, extracted the data. Any differences will be resolved by consulting the third author to ensure that a highly reliable and useful research paper is produced. Data were extracted from the final articles, including: authors, country of study, study type, sample size, participant demographics, type and name of AI software, results (accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, ROC, and predictive values), other outcome(s) if applicable.

RESULTS : Among the 3891 searched results, 32 articles describing 51,392 confirmed patients and 7686 non-infected individuals met the inclusion criteria. The pooled sensitivity, the pooled specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio and the pooled diagnostic odds ratio (OR) is 0.87(95%CI [confidence interval]: 0.85, 0.89), 0.85(95%CI: 0.82, 0.87), 6.7(95%CI: 5.7, 7.8), 0.14(95%CI: 0.12, 0.16), and 49(95%CI: 38, 65). Further, the AUROC (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve) is 0.94(95%CI: 0.91, 0.96). Secondary outcomes are specific sensitivity and specificity within subgroups defined by different models. Resnet has the best diagnostic performance, which has the highest sensitivity (0.91[95%CI: 0.87, 0.94]), specificity (0.90[95%CI: 0.86, 0.93]) and AUROC (0.96[95%CI: 0.94, 0.97]), according to the AUROC, we can get the rank Resnet > Densenet > VGG > Mobilenet > Inception > Effficient > Alexnet.

CONCLUSIONS : Our study findings show that deep learning models have immense potential in accurately stratifying COVID-19 patients and in correctly differentiating them from patients with other types of pneumonia and normal patients. Implementation of deep learning-based tools can assist radiologists in correctly and quickly detecting COVID-19 and, consequently, in combating the COVID-19 pandemic.

Wang Qiaolan, Ma Jingxuan, Zhang Luoning, Xie Linshen