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In Multimedia tools and applications

Pediatric pneumonia has drawn immense awareness due to the high mortality rates over recent years. The acute respiratory infection caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi infects the lung region and hinders oxygen transport, making breathing difficult due to inflamed or pus and fluid-filled alveoli. Being non-invasive and painless, chest X-rays are the most common modality for pediatric pneumonia diagnosis. However, the low radiation levels for diagnosis in children make accurate detection challenging. This challenge initiates the need for an unerring computer-aided diagnosis model. Our work proposes Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization for image enhancement and a stacking classifier based on the fusion of deep learning-based features for pediatric pneumonia diagnosis. The extracted features from the global average pooling layers of the fine-tuned MobileNet, DenseNet121, DenseNet169, and DenseNet201 are concatenated for the final classification using a stacked ensemble classifier. The stacking classifier uses Support Vector Classifier, Nu-SVC, Logistic Regression, K-Nearest Neighbor, Random Forest Classifier, Gaussian Naïve Bayes, AdaBoost classifier, Bagging Classifier, and Extra-trees Classifier for the first stage, and Nu-SVC as the meta-classifier. The stacking classifier validated using Stratified K-Fold cross-validation achieves an accuracy of 98.62%, precision of 98.99%, recall of 99.53%, F1 score of 99.26%, and an AUC score of 93.17% on the publicly available pediatric pneumonia dataset. We expect this model to greatly help the real-time diagnosis of pediatric pneumonia.

Arun Prakash J, Asswin C R, Ravi Vinayakumar, Sowmya V, Soman K P


Chest X-rays, Computer-aided diagnosis, Contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization, Deep learning, Pediatric pneumonia, Stacking classifier, Stratified K-fold, Transfer learning