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In Journal of oncology

Objective : To establish and verify the clinical prediction model of lung metastasis in renal cancer patients.

Method : Kidney cancer patients from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2017, in the SEER database were enrolled in this study. In the first section, LASSO method was adopted to select variables. Independent influencing factors were identified after multivariate logistic regression analysis. In the second section, machine learning (ML) algorithms were implemented to establish models and 10-foldcross-validation was used to train the models. Finally, receiver operating characteristic curves, probability density functions, and clinical utility curve were applied to estimate model's performance. The final model was shown by a website calculator.

Result : Lung metastasis was confirmed in 7.43% (3171 out of 42650) of study population. In multivariate logistic regression, bone metastasis, brain metastasis, grade, liver metastasis, N stage, T stage, and tumor size were independent risk factors of lung metastasis in renal cancer patients. Primary site and sequence number were independent protection factors of LM in renal cancer patients. The above 9 impact factors were used to develop the prediction models, which included random forest (RF), naive Bayes classifier (NBC), decision tree (DT), xgboost (XGB), gradient boosting machine (GBM), and logistic regression (LR). In 10-foldcross-validation, the average area under curve (AUC) ranked from 0.907 to 0.934. In ROC curve analysis, AUC ranged from 0.879-0.922. We found that the XGB model performed best, and a Web-based calculator was done according to XGB model.

Conclusion : This study provided preliminary evidence that the ML algorithm can be used to predict lung metastases in patients with kidney cancer. This low cost, noninvasive and easy to implement diagnostic method is useful for clinical work. Of course this model still needs to undergo more real-world validation.

Xu Chan, Zhou Qian, Liu Wencai, Li Wenle, Dong Shengtao, Li Wanying, Xu Xiaofeng, Qiao Ximin, Jiang Youli, Chen Jingfang, Yin Chengliang