In Food chemistry
Detection and prevention of fish food fraud are of ever-increasing importance, prompting the need for rapid, high-throughput fish speciation techniques. Rapid Evaporative Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (REIMS) has quickly established itself as a powerful technique for the instant in situ analysis of foodstuffs. In the current study, a total of 1736 samples (2015-2021) - comprising 17 different commercially valuable fish species - were analysed using iKnife-REIMS, followed by classification with various multivariate and machine learning strategies. The results demonstrated that multivariate models, i.e. PCA-LDA and (O)PLS-DA, delivered accuracies from 92.5 to 100.0%, while RF and SVM-based classification generated accuracies from 88.7 to 96.3%. Real-time recognition on a separate test set of 432 samples (2022) generated correct speciation between 89.6 and 99.5% for the multivariate models, while the ML models underperformed (22.3-95.1%), in particular for the white fish species. As such, we propose a real-time validated modelling strategy using directly amenable PCA-LDA for rapid industry-proof large-scale fish speciation.
De Graeve Marilyn, Birse Nicholas, Hong Yunhe, Elliott Christopher T, Hemeryck Lieselot Y, Vanhaecke Lynn
Ambient Ionisation Mass Spectrometry, Fish Speciation, Machine Learning, Metabolomics, Multivariate Chemometric Modelling, Real-time Prediction