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In Proceedings of SPIE--the International Society for Optical Engineering

We aimed to develop a novel deep-learning based method for automatic coronary artery calcium (CAC) quantification in low-dose ungated computed tomography attenuation correction maps (CTAC). In this study, we used convolutional long-short -term memory deep neural network (conv-LSTM) to automatically derive coronary artery calcium score (CAC) from both standard CAC scans and low-dose ungated scans (CT-attenuation correction maps). We trained convLSTM to segment CAC using 9543 scans. A U-Net model was trained as a reference method. Both models were validated in the OrCaCs dataset (n=32) and in the held-out cohort (n=507) without prior coronary interventions who had CTAC standard CAC scan acquired contemporarily. Cohen's kappa coefficients and concordance matrices were used to assess agreement in four CAC score categories (very low: <10, low:10-100; moderate:101-400 and high >400). The median time to derive results on a central processing unit (CPU) was significantly shorter for the conv-LSTM model- 6.18s (inter quartile range [IQR]: 5.99, 6.3) than for UNet (10.1s, IQR: 9.82, 15.9s, p<0.0001). The memory consumption during training was much lower for our model (13.11Gb) in comparison with UNet (22.31 Gb). Conv-LSTM performed comparably to UNet in terms of agreement with expert annotations, but with significantly shorter inference times and lower memory consumption.

Pieszko K, Shanbhag A, Killekar A, Lemley M, Otaki Y, Kriekinge Serge Van, Kavanagh Paul, Miller Robert Jh, Miller Edward J, Bateman Tim, Dey D, Berman D, Slomka P

Convolutional LSTM, Coronary calcium scoring, PET CTAC, deep learning