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In JAMIA open

Objective : To carry out exhaustive data-driven computations for the performance of noninvasive vital signs heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2), and temperature (Temp), considered both independently and in all possible combinations, for early detection of sepsis.

Materials and methods : By extracting features interpretable by clinicians, we applied Gradient Boosted Decision Tree machine learning on a dataset of 2630 patients to build 240 models. Validation was performed on a geographically distinct dataset. Relative to onset, predictions were clocked as per 16 pairs of monitoring intervals and prediction times, and the outcomes were ranked.

Results : The combination of HR and Temp was found to be a minimal feature set yielding maximal predictability with area under receiver operating curve 0.94, sensitivity of 0.85, and specificity of 0.90. Whereas HR and RR each directly enhance prediction, the effects of SpO2 and Temp are significant only when combined with HR or RR. In benchmarking relative to standard methods Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS), National Early Warning Score (NEWS), and quick-Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA), Vital-SEP outperformed all 3 of them.

Conclusion : It can be concluded that using intensive care unit data even 2 vital signs are adequate to predict sepsis upto 6 h in advance with promising accuracy comparable to standard scoring methods and other sepsis predictive tools reported in literature. Vital-SEP can be used for fast-track prediction especially in limited resource hospital settings where laboratory based hematologic or biochemical assays may be unavailable, inaccurate, or entail clinically inordinate delays. A prospective study is essential to determine the clinical impact of the proposed sepsis prediction model and evaluate other outcomes such as mortality and duration of hospital stay.

Rangan Ekanath Srihari, Pathinarupothi Rahul Krishnan, Anand Kanwaljeet J S, Snyder Michael P


XGBoost, machine learning, sepsis prediction, vitals parameters