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In Journal of pathology informatics ; h5-index 23.0

Background : The novel Artificial Intelligence-driven BestCyte® Cell Sorter Imaging System (BestCyte) enables hybrid digital screening through classification and sorting of tiles depicting cells in 8 galleries or whole slide image (WSI) reviews.

Objectives : (1) Analyze expenditures of time (minutes) for primary BestCyte cell sorter screening and adjudicative WSI rescreening of 500 blinded, randomized ThinPrep thin-layers to determine review times per Bethesda nomenclature; (2) Analyze review times for NILM qualifier diagnoses reflecting increasing interpretive complexity (i.e., Inflammation, Reactive/Repair, Bacterial cytolysis, Bacterial vaginosis, Atrophy, and Atrophic vaginitis); (3) Challenge accuracy of primary diagnoses (Downgraded, Upheld, and Upgraded) following adjudicative WSI rescreening to assess correlated review times as surrogate indicators of diagnostic confidence in BestCyte functionality (i.e., learning curve); and (4) Correlate primary and adjudicative diagnoses to calculate intra-observer reproducibility Kappa coefficients per Bethesda nomenclature.

Results : Of 500 thin-layers, the mean [primary/adjudicative rescreening review times (minutes)] were: Overall study [1.38/3.94], NILM [1.23/3.02], ASCUS [1.18/2.53], ASC-H [1.73/4.86], AGUS [1.84/6.34], LSIL [1.49/4.16], HSIL [1.52/4.10], CA [0.65/2.57]. Of 500 primary Bethesda diagnoses: 2 (0.40%) downgraded; 483 (96.6%) upheld; 15 (3.00%) upgraded after adjudicative WSI rescreening. Of 354 NILM diagnoses: 0 downgraded; 344 (97.2%) upheld; 10 (2.82%) upgraded. Of 34 ASCUS diagnoses: 2 (5.88%) downgraded; 28 (82.4%) upheld; 4 (11.8%) upgraded. Of 17 ASC-H diagnoses: 0 downgraded; 16 (94.1%) upheld; 1 (5.88%) upgraded. Of AGUS (n=1), LSIL (n=24), HSIL (n=52), CA (n=1), UNSAT (n=17): 100% upheld. Kappa coefficients with 95% (Confidence Intervals): Overall study 0.9305 (0.8983-0.9627), NILM 0.9429 (0.9110-0.9748), ASCUS 0.8378 (0.7393-0.9363), ASC-H 0.9112 (0.8113-0.9999), AGUS 1.0 (1.0-1.0), LSIL 0.9189 (0.8400-0.9978), HSIL 0.9894 (0.9685-0.9999), CA 1.0 (1.0-1.0), UNSAT 1.0 (1.0-1.0). Primary BestCyte cell image review time trends for NILM, ASCUS, LSIL, and HSIL, revealed plateaus relative to decreasing respective adjudicative WSI rescreening times.

Conclusions : Given innovative robustness, BestCyte accommodates interpretive fundamentals, enabling shorter ThinPrep thin-layer review times with optimal intra-observer concordance per Bethesda nomenclature through classifying, ranking, sorting, and displaying clinically relevant cells efficiently in galleries. BestCyte fosters continuously optimizing diagnostic confidence learning curves; may supplant manual microscopy for primary screening.

Chantziantoniou Nikolaos


Adjudicative whole slide image rescreening, Artificial Intelligence-based cytology, BestCyte cell sorter imaging system, Intra-observer reproducibility, Review times, Virtual primary screening