In Journal of pathology informatics ; h5-index 23.0
Background : Automated anomaly detection is an important tool that has been developed for many real-world applications, including security systems, industrial inspection, and medical diagnostics. Despite extensive use of machine learning for anomaly detection in these varied contexts, it is challenging to generalize and apply these methods to complex tasks such as toxicologic histopathology (TOXPATH) assessment (i.e.,finding abnormalities in organ tissues). In this work, we introduce an anomaly detection method using deep learning that greatly improves model generalizability to TOXPATH data.
Methods : We evaluated a one-class classification approach that leverages novel regularization and perceptual techniques within generative adversarial network (GAN) and autoencoder architectures to accurately detect anomalous histopathological findings of varying degrees of complexity. We also utilized multiscale contextual data and conducted a thorough ablation study to demonstrate the efficacy of our method. We trained our models on data from normal whole slide images (WSIs) of rat liver sections and validated on WSIs from three anomalous classes. Anomaly scores are collated into heatmaps to localize anomalies within WSIs and provide human-interpretable results.
Results : Our method achieves 0.953 area under the receiver operating characteristic on a real-worldTOXPATH dataset. The model also shows good performance at detecting a wide variety of anomalies demonstrating our method's ability to generalize to TOXPATH data.
Conclusion : Anomalies in both TOXPATH histological and non-histological datasets were accurately identified with our method, which was only trained with normal data.
Zehnder Philip, Feng Jeffrey, Fuji Reina N, Sullivan Ruth, Hu Fangyao
Anomaly detection, Deep learning, Digital pathology, Toxicological pathology