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ArXiv Preprint

Diagnostic and prognostic models are increasingly important in medicine and inform many clinical decisions. Recently, machine learning approaches have shown improvement over conventional modeling techniques by better capturing complex interactions between patient covariates in a data-driven manner. However, the use of machine learning introduces a number of technical and practical challenges that have thus far restricted widespread adoption of such techniques in clinical settings. To address these challenges and empower healthcare professionals, we present a machine learning framework, AutoPrognosis 2.0, to develop diagnostic and prognostic models. AutoPrognosis leverages state-of-the-art advances in automated machine learning to develop optimized machine learning pipelines, incorporates model explainability tools, and enables deployment of clinical demonstrators, without requiring significant technical expertise. Our framework eliminates the major technical obstacles to predictive modeling with machine learning that currently impede clinical adoption. To demonstrate AutoPrognosis 2.0, we provide an illustrative application where we construct a prognostic risk score for diabetes using the UK Biobank, a prospective study of 502,467 individuals. The models produced by our automated framework achieve greater discrimination for diabetes than expert clinical risk scores. Our risk score has been implemented as a web-based decision support tool and can be publicly accessed by patients and clinicians worldwide. In addition, AutoPrognosis 2.0 is provided as an open-source python package. By open-sourcing our framework as a tool for the community, clinicians and other medical practitioners will be able to readily develop new risk scores, personalized diagnostics, and prognostics using modern machine learning techniques.

Fergus Imrie, Bogdan Cebere, Eoin F. McKinney, Mihaela van der Schaar