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In PeerJ. Computer science

Soil study plays a significant role in the cultivation of crops. To increase the productivity of any crop, one must know the soil type and properties of that soil. The conventional soil type identification, grid sampling and hydrometer method require expert intervention, more time and extensive laboratory experimentation. Digital soil mapping, while applying remote sensing, offers soil type information and has rapidity, low cost, and spatial resolution advantages. This study proposes a model to identify the soil type using remote sensing data. Spectral data of the Upper Indus Plain of Pakistan Pothwar region and Doabs were acquired using fifteen Landsat eight images dated between June 2020 to August 2020. Bare soil images were obtained to identify the soil type classes Silt Loam, Loam, Sandy Loam, Silty Clay Loam and Clay Loam. Spectral data of band values, reflectance band values, corrective reflectance band values and vegetation indices are practiced studying the reflectance factor of soil type. Regarding multi-class classification, Random Forest and Support Vector Machine are two popular techniques used in the research community. In the present work, we used these two techniques aided with Logistic Model Tree with 10-fold cross-validation. The classification with the best performance is achieved using the spectral data, with an overall accuracy of 86.61% and 84.41% for the Random Forest and Logistic Model Tree classification, respectively. These results may be applied for crop cultivation in specific areas and assist decision-makers in better agricultural planning.

Ul Haq Yasin, Shahbaz Muhammad, Asif Hm Shahzad, Al-Laith Ali, Alsabban Wesam, Aziz Muhammad Haris


Digital soil mapping, Random forest, Remote sensing, Soil type, Spectral signatures