In The Science of the total environment
Cyanobacterial blooms in most lakes exhibit extraordinary changes in time and space. Herein, a cyanobacterial prediction model was designed for Lake Taihu based on a machine learning method. This method can generate temporally continuous (24 moments throughout the day) cyanobacterial data at a fine spatial scale of 9 km. The hourly meteorological data for 24 moments of the day were obtained from ERA5-Land data. Areal coverage of cyanobacterial blooms was derived from the hourly Geostationary Ocean Color Imager reflectance data observed only eight times a day (from ~8:00 to ~15:00, UTC+8). The cyanobacterial and meteorological data of eight moments in Lake Taihu from 2011 to 2020 were used to design the prediction model. The results were compared and validated employing nine training strategies to determine the best cyanobacterial prediction model for Lake Taihu (R = 0.42; root mean square error = 0.10). With the best-fitted model utilizing meteorological data (2011-2020), the area coverage of cyanobacterial blooms at the other 16 moments during a day were estimated. Based on this, the regional and temporal characteristics of diurnal bloom variation were evaluated at an hourly scale. The results indicated that the hourly variations in the areal coverage of cyanobacterial blooms at 24 moments of the day had similar patterns in each subregion of Lake Taihu with minor seasonal variations. The six meteorological variables adopted to construct the model had similar diurnal changes but with diverse value ranges among the seasons. Further analysis revealed that three meteorological variables (temperature, surface pressure, and evaporation) were positively related to diurnal bloom variations at an hourly scale. Overall, these results illustrate that meteorological conditions can affect the occurrence of cyanobacterial blooms at multiple time scales (e.g., hourly, daily, or monthly). The developed cyanobacterial prediction model can provide cyanobacterial data when cyanobacterial data is unavailable for the target waterbody.
Wang Siqi, Zhang Xiang, Wang Chao, Chen Nengcheng
Cyanobacterial blooms, Hourly prediction, LightGBM, Machine learning, Spatially continuous