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In IEEE transactions on neural systems and rehabilitation engineering : a publication of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society

According to the World Health Organization, more and more people in the world are suffering from somnipathy. Automatic sleep staging is critical for assessing sleep quality and assisting in the diagnosis of psychiatric and neurological disorders caused by somnipathy. Many researchers employ deep learning methods for sleep stage classification and have achieved high performance. However, there are still no effective methods to modeling intrinsic characteristics of salient wave in different sleep stages from physiological signals. And transition rules hidden in signals from one to another sleep stage cannot be identified and captured. In addition, class imbalance problem in dataset is not conducive to building a robust classification model. To solve these problems, we construct a deep neural network combining MSE(Multi-Scale Extraction) based U-structure and CBAM (Convolutional Block Attention Module) to extract the multi-scale salient waves from single-channel EEG signals. The U-structured convolutional network with MSE is utilized to extract multi-scale features from raw EEG signals. After that, the CBAM is used to focus more on salient variation and then learn transition rules between successive sleep stages. Further, a class adaptive weight cross entropy loss function is proposed to solve the class imbalance problem. Experiments in three public datasets show that our model greatly outperform the state-of-the-art results compared with existing methods. The overall accuracy and macro F1-score (Sleep-EDF-39: 90.3%-86.2, Sleep-EDF-153: 89.7%-85.2, SHHS: 86.8%-83.5) on three public datasets suggest that the proposed model is very promising to completely take place of human experts for sleep staging.

Liu Zhi, Luo Sixin, Lu Yunhua, Zhang Yihao, Jiang Linfeng, Xiao Hanguang