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In Analytica chimica acta

Multiplexed detection of biomolecules is of great value in various fields, from disease diagnosis to food safety and environmental monitoring. However, accurate and multiplexed analyte detection is challenging to achieve in mixtures using a single device/material. In this paper, we demonstrate a machine learning (ML)-powered multimodal analytical device based on a single sensing material made of electrodeposited molybdenum polysulfide (eMoSx) on laser induced graphene (LIG) for multiplexed detection of tyrosine (TYR) and uric acid (UA) in sweat and saliva. Electrodeposition of MoSx shows an increased electrochemically active surface area (ECSA) and heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant, k0. Features are extracted from the electrochemical data in order to train ML models to predict the analyte concentration in the sample (both singly spiked and mixed samples). Different ML architectures are explored to optimize the sensing performance. The optimized ML-based multimodal analytical system offers a limit of detection (LOD) that is two orders of magnitude better than conventional approaches which rely on single peak analysis. A flexible and wearable sensor patch is also fabricated and validated on-body, achieving detection of UA and TYR in sweat over a wide concentration range. While the performance of the developed approach is demonstrated for detecting TYR and UA using eMoSx-LIG sensors, it is a general analytical methodology and can be extended to a variety of electrochemical sensors to enable accurate, reliable, and multiplexed sensing.

Kammarchedu Vinay, Butler Derrick, Ebrahimi Aida


Laser induced graphene, Machine learning, Multimodal sensing, Multiplexed biosensor, Saliva, Sweat, Wearable