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In Journal of biomedical informatics ; h5-index 55.0

Although individually rare, collectively more than 7,000 rare diseases affect about 10% of patients. Each of the rare diseases impacts the quality of life for patients and their families, and incurs significant societal costs. The low prevalence of each rare disease causes formidable challenges in accurately diagnosing and caring for these patients and engaging participants in research to advance treatments. Deep learning has advanced many scientific fields and has been applied to many healthcare tasks. This study reviewed the current uses of deep learning to advance rare disease research. Among the 332 reviewed articles, we found that deep learning has been actively used for rare neoplastic diseases (250/332), followed by rare genetic diseases (170/332) and rare neurological diseases (127/332). Convolutional neural networks (307/332) were the most frequently used deep learning architecture, presumably because image data were the most commonly available data type in rare disease research. Diagnosis is the main focus of rare disease research using deep learning (263/332). We summarized the challenges and future research directions for leveraging deep learning to advance rare disease research.

Lee Junghwan, Liu Cong, Kim Junyoung, Chen Zhehuan, Sun Yingcheng, Rogers James R, Chung Wendy K, Weng Chunhua


Deep Learning, Machine Learning, Rare Disease