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In Computerized medical imaging and graphics : the official journal of the Computerized Medical Imaging Society

The Gleason scoring system is a reliable method for quantifying the aggressiveness of prostate cancer, which provides an important reference value for clinical assessment on therapeutic strategies. However, to the best of our knowledge, no study has been done on the pathological grading of prostate cancer from single ultrasound images. In this work, a novel Automatic Region-based Gleason Grading (ARGG) network for prostate cancer based on deep learning is proposed. ARGG consists of two stages: (1) a region labeling object detection (RLOD) network is designed to label the prostate cancer lesion region; (2) a Gleason grading network (GNet) is proposed for pathological grading of prostate ultrasound images. In RLOD, a new feature fusion structure Skip-connected Feature Pyramid Network (CFPN) is proposed as an auxiliary branch for extracting features and enhancing the fusion of high-level features and low-level features, which helps to detect the small lesion and extract the image detail information. In GNet, we designed a synchronized pulse enhancement module (SPEM) based on pulse-coupled neural networks for enhancing the results of RLOD detection and used as training samples, and then fed the enhanced results and the original ones into the channel attention classification network (CACN), which introduces an attention mechanism to benefit the prediction of cancer grading. Experimental performance on the dataset of prostate ultrasound images collected from hospitals shows that the proposed Gleason grading model outperforms the manual diagnosis by physicians with a precision of 0.830. In addition, we have evaluated the lesions detection performance of RLOD, which achieves a mean Dice metric of 0.815.

Lu Xu, Zhang Shulian, Liu Zhiyong, Liu Shaopeng, Huang Jun, Kong Guoquan, Li Mingzhu, Liang Yinying, Cui Yunneng, Yang Chuan, Zhao Shen


Gleason grading, Object detection, Prostate cancer, Ultrasound images