In PloS one ; h5-index 176.0
For accurate respiration gated radiation therapy, compensation for the beam latency of the beam control system is necessary. Therefore, we evaluate deep learning models for predicting patient respiration signals and investigate their clinical feasibility. Herein, long short-term memory (LSTM), bidirectional LSTM (Bi-LSTM), and the Transformer are evaluated. Among the 540 respiration signals, 60 signals are used as test data. Each of the remaining 480 signals was spilt into training and validation data in a 7:3 ratio. A total of 1000 ms of the signal sequence (Ts) is entered to the models, and the signal at 500 ms afterward (Pt) is predicted (standard training condition). The accuracy measures are: (1) root mean square error (RMSE) and Pearson correlation coefficient (CC), (2) accuracy dependency on Ts and Pt, (3) respiratory pattern dependency, and (4) error for 30% and 70% of the respiration gating for a 5 mm tumor motion for latencies of 300, 500, and 700 ms. Under standard conditions, the Transformer model exhibits the highest accuracy with an RMSE and CC of 0.1554 and 0.9768, respectively. An increase in Ts improves accuracy, whereas an increase in Pt decreases accuracy. An evaluation of the regularity of the respiratory signals reveals that the lowest predictive accuracy is achieved with irregular amplitude patterns. For 30% and 70% of the phases, the average error of the three models is <1.4 mm for a latency of 500 ms and >2.0 mm for a latency of 700 ms. The prediction accuracy of the Transformer is superior to LSTM and Bi-LSTM. Thus, the three models have clinically applicable accuracies for a latency <500 ms for 10 mm of regular tumor motion. The clinical acceptability of the deep learning models depends on the inherent latency and the strategy for reducing the irregularity of respiration.
Jeong Sangwoon, Cheon Wonjoong, Cho Sungkoo, Han Youngyih