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In Applied optics

Bacteria, especially foodborne pathogens, seriously threaten human life and health. Rapid discrimination techniques for foodborne pathogens are still urgently needed. At present, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), combined with machine learning algorithms, is seen as fast recognition technology for pathogenic bacteria. However, there is still a lack of research on evaluating the differences between different bacterial classification models. In this work, five species of foodborne pathogens were analyzed via LIBS; then, the preprocessing effect of five filtering methods was compared to improve accuracy. The preprocessed spectral data were further analyzed with a support vector machine (SVM), a backpropagation neural network (BP), and k-nearest neighbor (KNN). Upon comparing the capacity of the three algorithms to classify pathogenic bacteria, the most suitable one was selected. The signal-to-noise ratio and mean square error of the spectral data after applying a Savitzky-Golay filter reached 17.4540 and 0.0020, respectively. The SVM algorithm, BP algorithm, and KNN algorithm attained the highest classification accuracy for pathogenic bacteria, reaching 98%, 97%, and 96%, respectively. The results indicate that, with the support of a machine learning algorithm, LIBS technology demonstrates superior performance, and the combination of the two is expected to be a powerful tool for pathogen classification.

Sun Haorui, Yang Canran, Chen Youyuan, Duan Yixiang, Fan Qingwen, Lin Qingyu