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In Sleep

STUDY OBJECTIVES : Eye movement quantification in polysomnograms (PSG) is difficult and resource intensive. Automated eye movement detection would enable further study of eye movement patterns in normal and abnormal sleep, which could be clinically diagnostic of neurologic disorders, or used to monitor potential treatments. We trained a Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) algorithm that can identify eye movement occurrence with high sensitivity and specificity.

METHODS : We conducted a retrospective, single-center study using one-hour PSG samples from 47 patients 18-90 years of age. Team members manually identified and trained an LSTM algorithm to detect eye movement presence, direction, and speed. We performed a 5-fold cross validation and implemented a "fuzzy" evaluation method to account for misclassification in the preceding and subsequent 1-second of gold standard manually labeled eye movements. We assessed G-means, discrimination, sensitivity, and specificity.

RESULTS : Overall, eye movements occurred in 9.4% of the analyzed EOG recording time from 47 patients. Eye movements were present 3.2% of N2 (lighter stages of sleep) time, 2.9% of N3 (deep sleep), and 19.8% of REM sleep. Our LSTM model had average sensitivity of 0.88 and specificity of 0.89 in 5-fold cross validation, which improved to 0.93 and 0.92 respectively using the fuzzy evaluation scheme.

CONCLUSION : An automated algorithm can detect eye movements from EOG with excellent sensitivity and specificity. Noninvasive, automated eye movement detection has several potential clinical implications in improving sleep study stage classification and establishing normal eye movement distributions in healthy and unhealthy sleep, and in patients with and without brain injury.

Dupre Alicia E, Cronin Michael F M, Schmugge Stephen, Tate Samuel, Wack Audrey, Prescott Brenton R, Li Cheyi, Auerbach Sanford, Suchdev Kushak, Al-Faraj Abrar, He Wei, Cervantes-Arslanian Anna M, Abdennadher Myriam, Saxena Aneeta, Lehan Walter, Russo Mary, Pugsley Brian, Greer David, Shin Min, Ong Charlene J


Electro-oculography, Long Short-Term Memory, Recurrent Neural Networks, automated detection, eye movements, sleep