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In Optics express

Single molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) is a mainstream method in the field of super-resolution fluorescence microscopy that can achieve a spatial resolution of 20∼30 nm through a simple optical system. SMLM usually requires thousands of raw images to reconstruct a super-resolution image, and thus suffers from a slow imaging speed. Recently, several methods based on image inpainting have been developed to enhance the imaging speed of SMLM. However, these image inpainting methods may also produce erroneous local features (or called image artifacts), for example, incorrectly joined or split filaments. In this study, we use the ResNet generator, a network with strong local feature extraction capability, to replace the popularly-used U-Net generator to minimize the image artifact problem in current image inpainting methods, and develop an image inpainting method called DI-STORM. We validate our method using both simulated and experimental data, and demonstrate that DI-STORM has the best acceleration capability and produces the least artifacts in the repaired images, as compared with VDSR (the simplest CNN-based image inpainting method in SMLM) and ANNA-PALM (the best GAN-based image inpainting method in SMLM). We believe that DI-STORM could facilitate the application of deep learning-based image inpainting methods for SMLM.

Zhou Zhiwei, Kuang Weibing, Wang Zhengxia, Huang Zhen-Li