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In Optics express

We introduce a broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscope based on a 2-MHz repetition rate ytterbium laser generating 1035-nm high-energy (≈µJ level) femtosecond pulses. These features of the driving laser allow producing broadband red-shifted Stokes pulses, covering the whole fingerprint region (400-1800 cm-1), employing supercontinuum generation in a bulk crystal. Our system reaches state-of-the-art acquisition speed (<1 ms/pixel) and unprecedented sensitivity of ≈14.1 mmol/L when detecting dimethyl sulfoxide in water. To further improve the performance of the system and to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of the CARS spectra, we designed a convolutional neural network for spectral denoising, coupled with a post-processing pipeline to distinguish different chemical species of biological tissues.

Vernuccio Federico, Bresci Arianna, Talone Benedetta, de la Cadena Alejandro, Ceconello Chiara, Mantero Stefano, Sobacchi Cristina, Vanna Renzo, Cerullo Giulio, Polli Dario