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In Computers in biology and medicine

Chest X-ray (CXR) images are considered useful to monitor and investigate a variety of pulmonary disorders such as COVID-19, Pneumonia, and Tuberculosis (TB). With recent technological advancements, such diseases may now be recognized more precisely using computer-assisted diagnostics. Without compromising the classification accuracy and better feature extraction, deep learning (DL) model to predict four different categories is proposed in this study. The proposed model is validated with publicly available datasets of 7132 chest x-ray (CXR) images. Furthermore, results are interpreted and explained using Gradient-weighted Class Activation Mapping (Grad-CAM), Local Interpretable Modelagnostic Explanation (LIME), and SHapley Additive exPlanation (SHAP) for better understandably. Initially, convolution features are extracted to collect high-level object-based information. Next, shapely values from SHAP, predictability results from LIME, and heatmap from Grad-CAM are used to explore the black-box approach of the DL model, achieving average test accuracy of 94.31 ± 1.01% and validation accuracy of 94.54 ± 1.33 for 10-fold cross validation. Finally, in order to validate the model and qualify medical risk, medical sensations of classification are taken to consolidate the explanations generated from the eXplainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) framework. The results suggest that XAI and DL models give clinicians/medical professionals persuasive and coherent conclusions related to the detection and categorization of COVID-19, Pneumonia, and TB.

Bhandari Mohan, Shahi Tej Bahadur, Siku Birat, Neupane Arjun


COVID-19, Deep learning, Grad-CAM, LIME, Pneumonia, SHAP, Tuberculosis, eXplainable AI