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In BioMed research international ; h5-index 102.0

Objective : To review the progress of research on photoplethysmography- (PPG-) based cuffless continuous blood pressure monitoring technologies and prospect the challenges that need to be addressed in the future.

Methods : Using Web of Science and PubMed as search engines, the literature on cuffless continuous blood pressure studies using PPG signals in the recent five years were searched.

Results : Based on the retrieved literature, this paper describes the available open datasets, commonly used signal preprocessing methods, and model evaluation criteria. Early researches employed multisite PPG signals to calculate pulse wave velocity or time and predicted blood pressure by a simple linear equation. Later, extensive researches were dedicated to mine the features of PPG signals related to blood pressure and regressed blood pressure by machine learning models. Most recently, many researches have emerged to experiment with complex deep learning models for blood pressure prediction with the raw PPG signal as input.

Conclusion : This paper summarized the methods in the retrieved literature, provided insight into the artificial intelligence algorithms employed in the literature, and concluded with a discussion of the challenges and opportunities for the development of cuffless continuous blood pressure monitoring technologies.

Qin Caijie, Wang Xiaohua, Xu Guangjun, Ma Xibo