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In Brain informatics

Temporal analysis of global cortical communication of cognitive tasks in coarse EEG information is still challenging due to the underlying complex neural mechanisms. This study proposes an attention-based time-series deep learning framework that processes fMRI functional connectivity optimized quasi-stable frequency microstates for classifying distinct temporal cortical communications of the cognitive task. Seventy volunteers were subjected to visual target detection tasks, and their electroencephalogram (EEG) and functional MRI (fMRI) were acquired simultaneously. At first, the acquired EEG information was preprocessed and bandpass to delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma bands and then subjected to quasi-stable frequency-microstate estimation. Subsequently, time-series elicitation of each frequency microstates is optimized with graph theory measures of simultaneously eliciting fMRI functional connectivity between frontal, parietal, and temporal cortices. The distinct neural mechanisms associated with each optimized frequency-microstate were analyzed using microstate-informed fMRI. Finally, these optimized, quasi-stable frequency microstates were employed to train and validate the attention-based Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) time-series architecture for classifying distinct temporal cortical communications of the target from other cognitive tasks. The temporal, sliding input sampling windows were chosen between 180 to 750 ms/segment based on the stability of transition probabilities of the optimized microstates. The results revealed 12 distinct frequency microstates capable of deciphering target detections' temporal cortical communications from other task engagements. Particularly, fMRI functional connectivity measures of target engagement were observed significantly correlated with the right-diagonal delta (r = 0.31), anterior-posterior theta (r = 0.35), left-right theta (r = - 0.32), alpha (r = - 0.31) microstates. Further, neuro-vascular information of microstate-informed fMRI analysis revealed the association of delta/theta and alpha/beta microstates with cortical communications and local neural processing, respectively. The classification accuracies of the attention-based LSTM were higher than the traditional LSTM architectures, particularly the frameworks that sampled the EEG data with a temporal width of 300 ms/segment. In conclusion, the study demonstrates reliable temporal classifications of global cortical communication of distinct tasks using an attention-based LSTM utilizing fMRI functional connectivity optimized quasi-stable frequency microstates.

Agrawal Swati, Chinnadurai Vijayakumar, Sharma Rinku


Attention-based deep learning, EEG-informed fMRI. Multifrequency coupling, Frequency-microstates, Hemodynamic functional connectivity, Target detection